Pure water consists of hydrogen and oxygen, H2O, and is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, transparent
liquid, which is very slightly compressible. At its maximum density, 39° Fahr. or 4° C., it is the standard
for specific gravities, one cubic centimeter weighing one gram. It freezes at 32° Fahr. or 0° C. and boils
at 212° Fahr. or 100° C. It is the most important natural solvent, and is frequently impregnated with foreign
matter which is mostly removed by distillation; hence, rain water is nearly pure. It is an important ingredient
in the tissue of animals and plants, the human body containing about two thirds its weight of water.
2. A body of water, standing or flowing; a lake, river, or other collection of water.
Remembering he had passed over a small water a poor scholar when first coming to the university, he
3. Any liquid secretion, humor, or the like, resembling water; esp., the urine.
4. (Pharm.) A solution in water of a gaseous or readily volatile substance; as, ammonia water. U. S.
5. The limpidity and luster of a precious stone, especially a diamond; as, a diamond of the first water,
that is, perfectly pure and transparent. Hence, of the first water, that is, of the first excellence.
6. A wavy, lustrous pattern or decoration such as is imparted to linen, silk, metals, etc. See Water, v.
t., 3, Damask, v. t., and Damaskeen.
7. An addition to the shares representing the capital of a stock company so that the aggregate par value
of the shares is increased while their value for investment is diminished, or "diluted." [Brokers' Cant]
Water is often used adjectively and in the formation of many self-explaining compounds; as, water drainage;
water gauge, or water-gauge; waterfowl, water-fowl, or water fowl; water-beaten; water-borne, water-
circled, water-girdled, water-rocked, etc.
Hard water. See under Hard. Inch of water, a unit of measure of quantity of water, being the
quantity which will flow through an orifice one inch square, or a circular orifice one inch in diameter, in
a vertical surface, under a stated constant head; also called miner's inch, and water inch. The shape
of the orifice and the head vary in different localities. In the Western United States, for hydraulic mining,
the standard aperture is square and the head from 4 to 9 inches above its center. In Europe, for experimental
hydraulics, the orifice is usually round and the head from &frac1x12 of an inch to 1 inch above its top.
Mineral water, waters which are so impregnated with foreign ingredients, such as gaseous, sulphureous,
and saline substances, as to give them medicinal properties, or a particular flavor or temperature.
Soft water, water not impregnated with lime or mineral salts. To hold water. See under Hold, v.
t. To keep one's head above water, to keep afloat; fig., to avoid failure or sinking in the struggles
of life. [Colloq.] To make water. (a) To pass urine. Swift. (b) (Naut.) To admit water; to leak.
Water of crystallization (Chem.), the water combined with many salts in their crystalline form.
This water is loosely, but, nevertheless, chemically, combined, for it is held in fixed and definite amount
for each substance containing it. Thus, while pure copper sulphate, CuSO4, is a white amorphous substance,
blue vitriol, the crystallized form, CuSO4.5H2O, contains five molecules of water of crystallization.
Water on the brain (Med.), hydrocephalus. Water on the chest (Med.), hydrothorax.
Other phrases, in which water occurs as the first element, will be found in alphabetical order in the
(Wa"ter) v. t. [imp. & p. p. Watered ; p. pr. & vb. n. Watering.] [AS. wæterian, gewæterian.]