JOWAUR, JOWARREE, s. Hind. jawar, juar, [Skt. yava-prakara or akara, ‘of the nature of barley’;] Sorghum vulgare, Pers. (Holcus sorghum, L.) one of the best and most frequently grown of the tall millets of southern countries. It is grown nearly all over India in the unflooded tracts; it is sown about July and reaped in November. The reedy stems are 8 to 12 feet high. It is the cholam of the Tamil regions. The stalks are Kirbee. The Ar. dura or dhura is perhaps the same word ultimately as jawar; for the old Semitic name is dokn, from the smoky aspect of the grain. It is an odd instance of the looseness which used to pervade dictionaries and glossaries that R. Drummond (Illus. of the Gram. Parts of Guzerattee, &c., Bombay, 1808) calls “Jooar, a kind of pulse, the food of the common people.”

[c. 1590.—In Khandesh “Jowári is chiefly cultivated of which, in some places, there are three crops in a year, and its stalk is so delicate and pleasant to the taste that it is regarded in the light of a fruit.”—Ain, ed. Jarrett, ii. 223.]

1760.—“En suite mauvais chemin sur des levées faites de boue dans des quarrés de Jouari et des champs de Nelis (see NELLY) remplis d’eau.”—Anquetil du Perron, I. ccclxxxiii.

1800.—“… My industrious followers must live either upon jowarry, of which there is an abundance everywhere, or they must be more industrious in procuring rice for themselves.”—Wellington, i. 175.

1813.—Forbes calls it “juarree or cush-cush” (?). [See CUSCUS.]—Or. Mem. ii. 406; [2nd ed. ii. 35, and i. 23].

1819.—“In 1797–8 joiwaree sold in the Muchoo Kaunta at six rupees per culsee (see CULSEY) of 24 maunds.”—Macmurdo, in Tr. Lit. Soc. Bo. i. 287.

[1826.—“And the sabre began to cut away upon them as if they were a field of Joanee (standing corn).”—Pandurang Hari, ed. 1873 i. 66.]

JOY, s. This seems from the quotation to have been used on the west coast for jewel (Port. joia).

1810.—“The vanity of parents sometimes leads them to dress their children, even while infants, in this manner, which affords a temptation … to murder these helpless creatures for the sake of their ornaments or joys.”—Maria Graham, 3.

JUBTEE, JUPTEE, &c., s. Guz. japti, &c. Corrupt forms of zabti. [“Watan-zabti, or -japti, Mahr., Produce of lands sequestered by the State, an item of revenue; in Guzerat the lands once exempt, now subject to assessment” (Wilson).] (See ZUBT.) 1808.—“The Sindias as Sovereigns of Broach used to take the revenues of Moojmooadars and Desoys (see DESSAYE) of that district every third year, amounting to Rs. 58,390, and called the periodical confiscation Juptee.”—R. Drummond. [Majmuadar “in Guzerat the title given to the keepers of the pargana revenue records, who have held the office as a hereditary right since the settlement of Todar Mal, and are paid by fees charged on the villages.” (Wilson)].

JUDEA, ODIA, &c., n.p. These names are often given in old writers to the city of Ayuthia, or Ayodhya, or Yuthia (so called apparently after the Hindu city of Rama, Ayodhya, which we now call Oudh), which was the capital of Siam from the 14th century down to about 1767, when it was destroyed by the Burmese, and the Siamese royal residence was transferred to Bangkock [see BANCOCK.]

1522.—“All these cities are constructed like ours, and are subject to the King of Siam, who is named Siri Zacabedera, and who inhabits Iudia.”—Pigafetta, Hak. Soc. 156.

c. 1546.—“The capitall City of all this Empire is Odiaa, whereof I haue spoken heretofore: it is fortified with walls of brick and mortar, and contains, according to some, foure hundred thousand fires, whereof an hundred thousand are strangers of divers countries.”—Pinto, in Cogan’s E.T. p. 285; orig. cap. clxxxix.

1553.—“For the Realm is great, and its Cities and Towns very populous; insomuch that the city Hudia alone, which is the capital of the Kingdom of Siam (Sião), and the residence of the King, furnishes 50,000 men of its own.”—Barros, III. ii. 5.

1614.—“As regards the size of the City of Odia … it may be guessed by an experiment made by a curious engineer with whom we communicated on the subject. He says that … he embarked in one of the native boats, small, and very light, with the determination to go all round the City (which is entirely compassed by water), and that he started one day from the Portuguese settlement, at dawn, and when he got back it was already far on in the night, and he affirmed that by his calculation he had gone more than 8 leagues.”—Couto, VI. vii. 9.

1617.—“The merchants of the country of Lan John, a place joining to the country of Jangama (see JANGOMAY) arrived at ‘the city of Judea’ before Eaton’s coming away from thence, and brought great store of merchandize.”—Sainsbury, ii. 90.

„ “1 (letter) from Mr. Benjamyn

  By PanEris using Melati.

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