MAJOON to MALABAR
MAJOON, s. Hind. from Ar. ma-jun, lit. kneaded, and thence what old medical books call an electuary
(i.e. a compound of medicines kneaded with syrup into a soft mass), but especially applied to an intoxicating
confection of hemp leaves, &c., sold in the bazar. [Burton, Ar. Nights, iii. 159.] In the Deccan the form
is ma-jum. Moodeen Sheriff, in his Suppt. to the Pharmac. of India, writes maghjun. The chief ingredients
in making it are ganja (or hemp) leaves, milk, ghee, poppy-seeds, flowers of the thorn-apple (see DATURA),
the powder of nux vomica, and sugar (Qanoon-e-Islam, Gloss. lxxxiii).
1519.Next morning I halted
and indulging myself with a maajûn, made them throw into the water the
liquor used for intoxicating fishes, and caught a few fish.Baber, 272.
1563.And this they make up
into an electuary, with sugar, and with the things above-mentioned, and this they call maju.Garcia,
1781.Our ill-favoured guard brought in a dose of majum each, and obliged us to eat it
after sunset the surgeon came, and with him 30 or 40 Caffres, who seized us, and held us fast till the
operation (circumcision) was performed.Soldiers letter quoted in Hon. John Lindsays Journal of
Captivity in Mysore, Lives of Lindsays, iii. 293.
it (Bhang) is made up with flour and various additions
into a sweetmeat or majum of a green colour.Hànbury and Flückiger, 493.
a. The name of the sea-board country which the Arabs called the Pepper-Coast, the
ancient Kerala of the Hindus, the [Greek Text] Limurikh, or rather [Greek Text] Dimurikh, of the Greeks
(see TAMIL), is not in form indigenous, but was applied, apparently, first by the Arab or Arabo-Persian
mariners of the Gulf. The substantive part of the name, Malai, or the like, is doubtless indigenous; it
is the Dravadian term for mountain in the Sanskritized form Malaya, which is applied specifically to
the southern portion of the Western Ghauts, and from which is taken the indigenous term Malayalam,
distinguishing that branch of the Dravidian language in the tract which we call Malabar. This nameMale
or Malai, Maliah, &c.,we find in the earlier post-classic notices of India; whilst in the great Temple-
Inscription of Tanjore (11th century) we find the region in question called Malai-nadu (nadu, country).
The affix bar appears attached to it first (so far as we are aware) in the Geography of Edrisi (c. 1150).
This (Persian ?) termination, bar, whatever be its origin, and whether or no it be connected either with
the Ar. barr, a continent, on the one hand, or with the Skt. vara, a region, a slope, on the other, was
most assuredly applied by the navigators of the Gulf to other regions which they visited besides Western
India. Thus we have Zangi-bar (mod. Zanzibar), the country of the Blacks; Kalahbar, denoting apparently
the coast of the Malay Peninsula; and even according to the dictionaries, Hindu-bar for India. In the
Arabic work which affords the second of these examples (Relation, &c., tr. by Reinaud, i. 17) it is expressly
explained: The word bar serves to indicate that which is both a coast and a kingdom. It will be seen
from the quotations below that in the Middle Ages, even after the establishment of the use of this termination,
the exact form of the name as given by foreign travellers and writers, varies considerably. But, from the
time of the Portuguese discovery of the Cape route, Malavar, or Malabar, as we have it now, is the
persistent form. [Mr. Logan (Manual, i. 1) remarks that the name is not in use in the district itself except
among foreigners and English-speaking natives; the ordinary name is Malayalam or Malayam, the Hill
c. 545.The imports to Taprobane are silk, aloeswood, cloves, sandalwood.
These again are passed
on from Sielediba to the marts on this side, such as [Greek Text] Male, where the pepper is grown.
And the most notable places of trade are these, Sindu
and then the five marts of [Greek Text] Male,
from which the pepper is exported, viz., Parti, Mangaruth, Salopatana, Nalopatana, and Pudopatana.Cosmas,
Bk. xi. In Cathay, &c., p. clxxviii.
c. 645.To the south this kingdom is near the sea. There
rise the mountains called Mo-la-ye (Malaya), with their precipitous sides, and their lofty summits, their
dark valleys and their deep ravines. On these mountains grows the white sandalwood.Hwen Tsang,
in Julien, iii. 122.
851.From this place (Maskat) ships sail for India, and run for Kaulam-Malai; the
distance from Maskat to Kaulam-Malai is a months sail with a moderate wind.Relation, &c., tr. by
Reinaud, i. 15. The same work at p. 15 uses the expression Country of Pepper (Balad-ul-falfal).
Sindán to Malí is five days journey; in the latter pepper is to be found, also the bamboo.Ibn Khurdádba,
in Elliot, i. 15.
c. 1030.You enter then on the country of Lárán, in which is Jaimúr (see under CHOUL),
then Maliah, then Kánchí, then Dravira (see DRAVIDIAN).Al-Birúni, in Reinaud, Fragmens, 121.
1150.Fandarina (see PANDARANI) is a town built at the mouth of a river which comes from Maníbár,