fort bien faites, qu’ils tiennent entre leurs doigts, et prennent avec cela ce qu’ils veulent manger, si dextrement, que rien plus.”—Mocquet, 346.

1711—“They take it very dexterously with a couple of small Chopsticks, which serve them instead of Forks.”—Lockyer, 174.

1876.—“Before each there will be found a pair of chopsticks, a wine-cup, a small saucer for soy…and a pile of small pieces of paper for cleaning these articles as required.”—Giles, Chinese Sketches, 153-4.

CHOTA-HAZRY, s. H. chhoti haziri, vulg. hazri, ‘little breakfast’; refreshment taken in the early morning, before or after the morning exercise. The term (see HAZREE) was originally peculiar to the Bengal Presidency. In Madras the meal is called ‘early tea.’ Among the Dutch in Java, this meal consists (or did consist in 1860) of a large cup of tea, and a large piece of cheese, presented by the servant who calls one in the morning.

1853.—“After a bath, and hasty ante-breakfast (which is called in India ‘a little breakfast’) at the Euston Hotel, he proceeded to the private residence of a man of law.”—Oakfield, ii. 179.

1866.—“There is one small meal…it is that commonly known in India by the Hindustani name of chota-haziri, and in our English colonies as ‘Early Tea.’…”—Waring, Tropical Resident, 172.

1875.—“We took early tea with him this morning.”—The Dilemma, ch. iii.

CHOUL, CHAUL, n.p. A seaport of the Concan, famous for many centuries under various forms of this name, Chenwal properly, and pronounced in Konkani Tsemwal (Sinclair, Ind. Ant. iv. 283). It may be regarded as almost certain that this was the [Greek Text] Simulla of Ptolemy’s Tables, called by the natives, as he says, [Greek Text] Timoula. It may be fairly conjectured that the true reading of this was [Greek Text] Tiimoula, or [Greek Text] Tiemoula. We find the sound ch of Indian names apparently represented in Ptolemy by [Greek Text] ti (as it is in Dutch by tj). Thus [Greek Text] Tiatoura=Chitor, [Greek Text] TiastanhV=Chashtana; here [Greek Text] Timoula=Chenwal; while [Greek Text] Tiagoura and [Greek Text] Tiauspa probably stand for names like Chagara and Chauspa. Still more confidently Chenwal may be identified with the Saimur (Chaimur) or Jaimur of the old Arab. Geographers, a port at the extreme end of Lar or Guzerat. At Choul itself there is a tradition that its antiquity goes back beyond that of Suali (see SWALLY), Bassein, or Bombay. There were memorable sieges of Choul in 1570-71, and again in 1594, in which the Portuguese successfully resisted Mahommedan attempts to capture the place. Dr. Burgess identifies the ancient [Greek Text] Shmulla rather with a place called Chembur, on the island of Trombay, which lies immediately east of the island of Bombay; but till more evidence is adduced we see no reason to adopt this.2 Choul seems now to be known as Revadanda. Even the name is not to be found in the Imperial Gazetteer. Rewadanda has a place in that work, but without a word to indicate its connection with this ancient and famous port. Mr. Gerson d’Acunha has published in the J. Bo. Br. As. Soc., vol. xii., Notes on the H. and Ant. of Chaul.

A.D. c. 80-90.— [Greek Text] “Meta de Kallienan alla emporia topika, Shmulla, kai Mandagora.…”—Periplus.

A.D. c. 150.— [Greek Text] “Simulla emporion (kaloumenon upo tvn egcvrivn Timoula).”—Ptol. i. cap. 17.

A.D. 916. “The year 304 I found myself in the territory of Saimur (or Chaimur), belonging to Hind and forming part of the province of Lar.…There were in the place about 10,000 Mussulmans, both of those called baiasirah (half-breeds), and of natives of Siraf, Oman, Basrah, Bagdad, &c.”—Mas’udi, ii. 86.

[1020.—“Jaimúr.” See quotation under LAR.]

c. 1150.—“Saimur, 5 days from Sindan, is a large, well-built town.”—Edrisi, in Elliot, i. [85].

c. 1470.—“We sailed six weeks in the tava till we reached Chivil, and left Chivil on the seventh week after the great day. This is an Indian country.”—Ath. Nikitin, 9, in India in X Vth. Cent.

1510.—“Departing from the said city of Combeia, I travelled on until I arrived at another city named Cevul (Chevul) which is distant from the above-mentioned city 12 days’ journey, and the country between the one and the other of these cities is called Guzerati.”—Varthema, 113.

1546.—Under this year D’Acunha quotes from Freire d’Andrada a story that when the Viceroy required 20,000 pardaos (q.v.) to send for the defence of Diu, offering in pledge a wisp of his mustachio, the women of Choul sent all their earrings and other jewellery, to be applied to this particular service.

1554.—“The ports of Mahaim and Sheúl belong to the Deccan.”—The Mohit, in J.A.S.B., v. 461.

1584.—“The 10th of November we arrived at Chaul which standeth in the firme land. There be two townes, the one belonging to the Portugales, and the other to the Moores.”—R. Fitch, in Hakl. ii. 384.

c. 1630.—“After long toil…we got to Choul; then we came

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