JUNKAMEER, s. This word occurs in Wheeler, i. 300, where it should certainly have been written Juncaneer. It was long a perplexity, and as it was the subject of one of Dr. Burnell’s latest, if not the very last, of his contributions to this work, I transcribe the words of his communication:

“Working at improving the notes to v. Linschoten, I have accidentally cleared up the meaning of a word you asked me about long ago, but which I was then obliged to give up—‘Jonkamir.’ It=‘a collector of customs.’

“(1745).—Notre Supérieur qui sçavoit qu’à moitié chemin certains Jonquaniers1 mettoient les passans à contribution, nous avoit donné un ou deux fanons (see FANAM) pour les payer en allant et en revenant, au cas qu’ils l’exigeassent de nous.”—P. Norbert, Memoires, pp. 159-160.

“The original word is in Malayalam chungakaran, and do. in Tamil, though it does not occur in the Dictionaries of that language; but chungam (=‘Customs’) does.
“I was much pleased to settle this curious word; but I should never have thought of the origin of it, had it not been for that rascally old Capuchin P. Norbert’s note.”

My friend’s letter (from West Stratton) has no date, but it must have been written in July or August 1882.—[H.Y.] (See JUNKEON.)

1680.—“The Didwan (see DEWAUN) returned with Lingapas Ruccas (see ROOCKA) upon the Avaldar (see HAVILDAR) at St. Thoma, and upon the two chief Juncaneers in this part of the country, ordering them not to stop goods or provisions coming into the town.”—Fort St. Geo. Consn., Nov. 22, Notes and Exts., iii. 39.

1746.—“Given to the Governor’s Servants, Juncaneers, &c., as usual at Christmas, Salampores (see SALEMPOORY) 18Ps. P. 13.”—Acct. of Extra Charges at Fort St. David, to Dec. 31. MS. Report, in India Office.

JUNK-CEYLON, n.p. The popular name of an island off the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. Forrest (Voyage to Mergui, pp. iii. and 29-30) calls it Jan-Sylan, and says it is properly Ujong (i.e. in Malay, ‘Cape’) Sylang. This appears to be nearly right. The name is, according to Crawfurd (Malay Dict. s.v. Salang, and Dict. Ind. Archip. s.v. Ujung) Ujung Salang, ‘Salang Headland.’ [Mr. Skeat doubts the correctness of this. “There is at least one quite possible alternative, i.e. jong salang, in which jong means ‘a junk,’ and salang, when applied to vessels, ‘heavily tossing’ (see Klinkert, Dict. s.v. salang). Another meaning of salang is ‘to transfix a person with à dagger,’ and is the technical term for Malay executions, in which the kris was driven down from the collar-bone to the heart. Parles in the first quotation is now known as Perlis.”]

1539.—“There we crost over to the firm Land, and passing by the Port of Junçalan (Iuncalão) we sailed two days and a half with a favourable wind, by means whereof we got to the River of Parles in the Kingdom of Queda. …”Pinto (orig. cap. xix.) in Cogan, p. 22.

1592.—“We departed thence to a Baie in the Kingdom of Iunsalaom, which is betweene Malacca and Pegu, 8 degrees to the Northward.”—Barker, in Hakl. ii. 591.

1727.—“The North End of Jonk Ceyloan lies within a mile of the Continent.”—A. Hamilton, 69; [ed. 1744, ii. 67].

JUNKEON, s. This word occurs as below. It is no doubt some form of the word chungam, mentioned under JUNKAMEER. Wilson gives Telugu Sunkam, which might be used in Orissa, where Bruton was. [Shungum (Mal. chunkam) appears in the sense of toll or customs duties in many of the old treaties in Logan, Malabar, vol. iii.]

1638.—“Any Iunkeon or Custome.”—Bruton’s Narrative, in Hakl. v. 53.

1676.—“These practices (claims of perquisite by the factory chiefs) hath occasioned some to apply to the Governour for relief, and chosen rather to pay Juncan than submit to the unreasonable demands aforesaid.”—Major Puckle’s Proposals, in Fort St. Geo. Consn., Feb. 16. Notes and Exts., i. 39.

[1727.—“… at every ten or twelve Miles end, a Fellow to demand Junkaun or Poll-Money for me and my Servants. …”—A. Hamilton, ed. 1744, i. 392.]

JURIBASSO, s. This word, meaning ‘an interpreter,’ occurs constantly in the Diary of Richard Cocks, of the English Factory in Japan, admirably edited for the Hakluyt Society by Mr. Edward Maunde Thompson (1883). The word is really Malayo-Javanese jurubahasa, lit. ‘language-master,’ juru being an expert, ‘a

  By PanEris using Melati.

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