JUNGLE-MAHALS, n.p. Hind. Jangal-Mahal. This, originally a v ague name of sundry tracts and chieftainships lying between the settled districts of Bengal and the hill country of Chutiãa Nagpur, was constituted a regular district in 1805, but again broken up and redistributed among adjoining districts in 1833 (see Imperial Gazetteer, s.v.).

JUNGLE-TERRY, n.p. Hind. Jangal-tarai (see TERAI). A name formerly ap plied to a border-tract between Bengal and Behar, including the inland parts of Monghyr and Bhagalpur, and what are now termed the Santal Parganas. H odges , below, calls it to the “westward” of Bhagalpur; but Barkope, which he describes as near the centre of the tract, lies, according to Rennell’s map, about 35 m. S.E. of Bhagalpur town; and the Cleveland inscription shows that the term included the tract occupied by the Rajmahal hill-people. The Map No. 2 in Rennell’s Bengal Atlas (1779) is entitled “the Jungle-terry District, with the adjacent provinces of Birbhoom, Rajemal, Boglipour, &c., comprehending the countries situated between Moorshedabad and Bahar.” But the map itself does not show the name Jungle Terry anywhere.

1781.—“Early in February we set out on a tour through a part of the country called the Jungle-Terry, to the westward of Bauglepore … after leaving the village of Barkope, which is nearly in the centre of the Jungle Terry, we entered the hills. … In the great famine which raged through Indostan in the year 1770 … the Jungle Terry is said to have suffered greatly.”—Hodges, pp. 90-95.

1784.—“To be sold … that capital collection of Paintings, late the property of A. Cleveland, Esq., deceased, consisting of the most capital views in the districts of Monghyr, Rajemehal, Boglipoor, and the Jungleterry, by Mr. Hodges. …”—InSeton- Karr, i. 64.

c. 1788.—

“To the Memory of
Late Collector of the Districts of Bhaugulpore and Rajamahall,
Who without Bloodshed or the Terror of Authority,
Employing only the Means of Conciliation, Confidence, and Benevolence, Attempted and Accomplished
The entire Subjection of the Lawless and
Savage Inhabitants of the
Jungleterry of Rajamahall. …”(etc.)
Inscription on the Monument erected by Government to Cleveland, who died in 1784.

1817.—“These hills are principally covered with wood, excepting where it has been cleared away for the natives to build their villages, and cultivate janaira (Jowaur), plantains and yams, which together with some of the small grains mentioned in the account of the Jungleterry, constitute almost the whole of the productions of these hills.”—Sutherland’s Report on the Hill People (in App. to Long, 560).

1824.—“This part, I find (he is writing at Monghyr), is not reckoned either in Bengal or Bahar, having been, under the name of the Jungleterry district, always regarded, till its pacification and settlement, as a sort of border or debateable land.”—Heber, i. 131.

JUNGLO, s. Guz. Janglo. This term, we are told by R. Drummond, was used in his time (the beginning of the 19th century), by the less polite, to distinguish Europeans; “wild men of the woods,” that is, who did not understand Guzerati!

1808.—“Joseph Maria, a well-known scribe of the order of Topeewallas … was actually mobbed, on the first circuit of 1806, in the town of Pitlaud, by parties of curious old women and young, some of whom gazing upon him put the question, Aré Jungla, too munne pirrneesh? ‘O wild one, wilt thou marry me?’ He knew not what they asked, and made no answer, whereupon they declared that he was indeed a very Jungla, and it required all the address of Kripram (the worthy Brahmin who related this anecdote to the writer, uncontradicted in the presence of the said Senhor) to draw off the dames and damsels from the astonished Joseph.”—R. Drummond, Illns. (s.v.).

JUNK, s. A large Eastern ship; especially (and in later use exclusively) a Chinese ship. This indeed is the earliest application also; any more general application belongs to an intermediate period. This is one of the oldest words in the Europeo-Indian vocabulary. It occurs in the travels of Friar Odorico, written down in 1331, and a few years later in the rambling reminiscences of John de’ Marignolli. The great Catalan World-map of 1375 gives a sketch of one of those ships with their sails of bamboo matting and calls them Enchi, no doubt a clerical error for Euchi. Dobner, the original editor of Marignolli, in the

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