JUMDUD, s. H. jamdad, jamdhar. A kind of dagger, broad at the base and slightly curved, the hilt formed with a cross-grip like that of the Katar (see KUTTAUR). [A drawing of what he calls a jamdhar katari is given in Egerton’s Catalogue (Pl. IX. No. 344–5).] F. Johnson’s Dictionary gives jamdar as a Persian word with the suggested etymology of janb-dar, ‘flank-render.’ But in the Ain the word is spelt jamdhar, which seems to indicate Hind. origin; and its occurrence in the poem of Chand Bardai (see Ind. Antiq. i. 281) corroborates this. Mr. Beames there suggests the etymology of Yama-dant ‘Death’s Tooth.’ The drawings of the jamdhad or jamdhar in the Ain illustrations show several specimens with double and triple toothed points, which perhaps favours this view; but Yama-dhara, ‘death-wielder,’ appears in the Sanskrit dictionaries as the name of a weapon. [Rather, perhaps, yama-dhara, ‘death-bearer.’]

c. 1526.—“Jamdher.” See quotation under KUTTAUR.

[1813.—“… visited the jamdar khana, or treasury containing his jewels … curious arms.…”—Forbes, Or. Mem. 2nd ed. ii. 469.]

JUMMA, s. Hind. from Ar. jama’. The total assessment (for land revenue) from any particular estate, or division of country. The Arab. word signifies ‘total’ or ‘aggregate.’

1781.—“An increase of more than 26 lacks of rupees (was) effected on the former jumma.”—Fifth Report, p. 8.

JUMMABUNDEE, s. Hind. from P.—Ar. jama’bandi. A settlement (q.v.), i.e. the determination of the amount of land revenue due for a year, or a period of years, from a village, estate, or parcel of land. [In the N.W.P. it is specially applied to the annual village rent-roll, giving details of the holding of each cultivator.] [1765.—“The rents of the province, according to the jumma-bundy, or rent-roll…amounted to.…”—Verelst, View of Bengal, App. 214.

[1814.—“Jummabundee.” See under PATEL.]

JUMNA, n.p. The name of a famous river in India which runs by Delhi and Agra. Skt. Yamuna, Hind. Jamuna and Jamna, the [Greek Text] Diamouna of Ptolemy, the [Greek Text] IwbarhV of Arrian, the Jomanes of Pliny. The spelling of Ptolemy almost exactly expresses the modern Hind. form Jamuna. The name Jamuna is also applied to what was in the 18th century, an unimportant branch of the Brahmaputra R. which connected it with the Ganges, but which has now for many years been the main channel of the former great river. (See JENNYE.) Jamuna is the name of several other rivers of less note.

[1616–17.—“I proposed for a water worke, wch might giue the Chief Cittye of the Mogores content … wch is to be don vppon the Riuer Ieminy wch passeth by Agra.…”—Birdwood, First Letter Book, 460.

[1619.—“The river Gemini was vnfit to set a Myll vppon.”—Sir T. Roe, Hak. Soc. ii. 477.

[1663.—“… the Gemna, a river which may be compared to the Loire.…”—Bernier, Letter to M. De la Mothe le Vayer, ed. Constable, 241.]

[JUMNA MUSJID, n.p. A common corruption of the Ar. jame masjid, ‘the cathedral or congregational mosque,’ Ar. jama’, ‘to collect.’ The common form is supposed to represent some great mosque on the Jumna R.

[1785.—“The Jumna-musjid is of great antiquity.…”—Diary, in Forbes, Or. Mem. 2nd ed. ii. 448.

[1849.—“In passing we got out to see the Jamna Masjid, a very fine building now used as a magazine.”—Mrs. Mackenzie, Life in the Mission, ii. 170.

[1865.—“… the great mosque or Djamia ‘… this word Djamia’ means literally ‘collecting’ or ‘uniting,’ because here attends the great concourse of Friday worshippers.…”—Palgrave, Central and E. Arabia, ed. 1868, 266.]

JUNGEERA, n.p., i.e. Janjira. The name of a native State on the coast, south of Bombay, from which the Fort and chief place is 44 m. distant. This place is on a small island, rising in the entrance to the Rajpuri inlet, to which the name Janjira properly pertains, believed to be a local corruption of the Ar. jazira, ‘island.’ The State is also called Habsan, meaning ‘Hubshee’s land,’ from the fact that for 3 or 4 centuries its chief has been of that race. This was not at first continuous, nor have the chiefs, even when of African blood, been always of one family; but they have apparently been so for the last 200 years. ‘The Sidi’ (see SEEDY) and ‘The Habshi,’ are titles popularly applied to this chief. This State

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