transferred to the rude angle-instruments of the Arab navigators; and Prinsep deduces from statements in Sidi ’Ali’s book that the isaba’ was very nearly equal to 96’ and the zam to 12’. Prinsep had also found on enquiry among Arab mariners, that the term zam was still well known to nautical people as 1/5 of a geographical degree, or 12 nautical miles, quite confirmatory of the former calculation; it was also stated to be still applied to terrestrial measurements (see J.A.S.B. v. 642–3).

1013.—“J’ai déjà parlé de Sérira (read Sarbaza) qui est située à l’extremité de l’île de Lâmeri, à cent-vingt zâmâ de Kala.”—Ajaib-al-Hind, ed. Van der Lith et Marcel Devic, 176.

„ “Un marin m’a rapporté qu’il avait" fait la traversée de Sérira (Sarbaza) à la Chine dans un Sambouq (see SAMBOOK). ‘Nous avions parcouru,’ dit- il, ‘un espace de cinquante zâmâ, lorsqu’une tempête fondit sur notre embarcation. … Ayant fait de l’eau, nous remîmes à la voile vers le Senf, suivant ses instructions, et nous y abordâmes sains et saufs, après un voyage de quinze zâmâ.”—Ibid. pp. 190–91.

1554.—“26th Voyage from Calicut to Kardafun” (see GUARDAFUI).

“… you run from Calicut to Kolfaini (i.e. Kalpeni, one of the Laccadive Ids.) two zams in the direction of W. by S., the 8 or 9 zams W.S.W. (this course is in the 9 degree channel through the Laccadives), then you may rejoice as you have got clear of the islands of Fúl, from thence W. by N. and W.N.W. till the pole is 4 inches and a quarter, and then true west to Kardafún.”

“27th Voyage, from Diú to Malacca.

“Leaving Diú you go first S.S.E. till the pole is 5 inches, and side then towards the land, till the distance between it and the ship is six zams; from thence you steer S.S.E. … you must not side all at once but by degrees, first till the farkadain (b and g in the Little Bear) are made by a quarter less than 8 inches, from thence to S.E. till the farkadain are 7 1/4 inches, from thence true east at a rate of 18 zams, then you have passed Ceylon.”—The Mohit, in J.A.S.B. v. 465.

The meaning of this last routier is: “Steer S.S.E. till you are in 8° N. Lat. (lat. of Cape Comorin); make then a little more easting, but keep 72 miles between you and the coast of Ceylon till you find the b and g of Ursa Minor have an altitude of only 12° 24’ (i.e. till you are in N. Lat. 6° or 5°), and then steer due east. When you have gone 216 miles you will be quite clear of Ceylon.”

1625.—“We cast anchor under the island of Kharg, which is distant from Cais, which we left behind us, 24 giam. Giam is a measure used by the Arab and Persian pilots in the Persian Gulf; and every giam is equal to 3 leagues; insomuch that from Cais to Kharg we had made 72 leagues.”—P. della Valle, ii. 816.

JAMBOO, JUMBOO, s. The Rose-apple, Eugenia jambos, L. Jambosa vulgaris, Decand.; Skt. jambu, Hind. jam, jambu, jamrul, &c. This is the use in Bengal, but there is great confusion in application, both colloquially and in books. the name jambu is applied in some parts of India to the exotic guava (q.v.), as well as to other species of Eugenia; including the jamun (see JAMOON), with which the rose- apple is often confounded in books. They are very different fruits, though they have both been classed by Linnaeus under the genus Eugenia (see further remarks under JAMOON). [Mr. Skeat notes that the word is applied by the Malays both to the rose-apple and the guava, and Wilkinson (Dict. s.v.) notes a large number of fruits to which the name jambu is applied.]

Garcia de Orta mentions the rose-apple under the name Iambos, and says (1563) that it had been recently introduced into Goa from Malacca. This may have been the Eugenia Malaccensis, L., which is stated in Forbes Watson’s Catalogue of nomenclature to be called in Bengal Malaka Jamrui, and in Tamil Malaka maram i.e. ‘Malacca tree.’ The Skt. name jambu is, in the Malay language, applied with distinguishing adjectives to all the species.

[1598.—“The trees whereon the Iambos do grow are as great as Plumtrees.”—Linschoten, Hak. Soc. ii. 31.]

1672.—P. Vincenzo Maria describes the Giambo d’India with great precision, and also the Giambo di China—no doubt J. malaccensis—but at too great length for extract, pp. 351–352.

1673.—“In the South a Wood of Jamboes, Mangoes, Cocoes.”—Fryer, 46.

1727.—“Their Jambo Malacca (at Goa) is very beautiful and pleasant.”—A. Hamilton, i. 255; [ed. 1744, i. 258].

1810.—“The jumboo, a species of rose-apple, with its flower like crimson tassels covering every part of the stem.”—Maria Graham, 22.

  By PanEris using Melati.

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