JADOO to JAGHEER
[1826.Pray, sir, said the barber, is that Sanscrit, or what language? May be it is jadoo, I replied, in a solemn and deep voice.Pandurang Hari, ed. 1873, i. 127.]
JADOOGUR, s. Properly Hind. jadughar, conjuring-house (see the last). The term commonly applied by natives to a Freemasons Lodge, when there is one, at an English station. On the Bombay side it is also called Shaitan khana (see Burtons Sind Revisited), a name consonant to the ideas of an Italian priest who intimated to one of the present writers that he had heard the raising of the devil was practised at Masonic meetings, and asked his friends opinion as to the fact. In S. India the Lodge is called Talai- vetta-Kovil, Cut-head Temple, because part of the rite of initiation is supposed to consist in the candidates head being cut off and put on again.
JAFNA, JAFNAPATÁM, n.p. The very ancient Tamil settlement, and capital of the Tamil kings on the singular peninsula which forms the northernmost part of Ceylon. The real name is, according to Emerson Tennent, Yalpannan, and it is on the whole probable that this name is identical with the Galiba (Prom.) of Ptolemy. [The Madras Gloss. gives the Tamil name as Yazhppanam, from yazh-panan, a lute- player; called after a blind minstrel of that name from the Chola country, who by permission of the Singhalese king obtained possession of Jaffna, then uninhabited, and introduced there a colony of the Tamul people.]
1553. the Kingdom Triquinamalé, which at the upper end of its coast adjoins another called Jafanapatam, which stands at the northern part of the island.Barros, III. ii. cap. i.
[JAFFRY, s. A screen or lattice-work, made generally of bamboo, used for various purposes, such as a fence, a support for climbing plants, &c. The ordinary Pers. jafari is derived from a person of the name of Jafar; but Mr. Platts suggests that in the sense under consideration it may be a corr. of Ar. zafirat, zafir, a braided lock.
[1832.Of vines, the branches must also be equally spread over the jaffry, so that light and heat may have access to the whole.Trans. Agri. Hort. Soc. Ind. ii. 202.]
JAGGERY, s. Coarse brown (or almost black) sugar, made from the sap of various palms. The wild
date tree (Phoenix sylvestris, Roxb.), Hind. khajur, is that which chiefly supplies palm-sugar in Guzerat
and Coromandel, and almost alone in Bengal. But the palmyra, the caryota, and the cocopalm all give
it; the first as the staple of Tinnevelly and northern Ceylon; the second chiefly in southern Ceylon, where
it is known to Europeans as the Jaggery Palm (kitul of natives); the third is much drawn for toddy
(q.v.) in the coast districts of Western India, and this is occasionally boiled for sugar. Jaggery is usually
made in the form of small round cakes. Great quantities are produced in Tinnevelly, where the cakes
used to pass as a kind of currency (as cakes of salt used to pass in parts of Africa, and in Western
China), and do even yet to some small extent. In Bombay all rough unrefined sugar-stuff is known by
this name; and it is the title under which all kinds of half-prepared sugar is classified in the tariff of the
Railways there. The word jaggery is only another form of sugar (q.v.), being like it a corr. of the Skt.
sarkara, Konkani sakkara, [Malayal. chakkara, whence it passed into Port. jagara, jagra]. 1516.Sugar
of palms, which they call xagara.Barbosa, 59.
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