Amyl nitrite, a yellow oily volatile liquid, used in medicine as a depressant and a vaso-dilator. Its inhalation produces an instantaneous flushing of the face.


1. A combining form or an adjective denoting the presence of niter.

2. (Chem.) A combining form (used also adjectively) designating certain compounds of nitrogen or of its acids, as nitrohydrochloric, nitrocalcite; also, designating the group or radical NO2, or its compounds, as nitrobenzene.

Nitro group, the radical NO2; — called also nitroxyl.

(Ni`tro*ben"zene) n. [Nitro- + benzene.] (Chem.) A yellow aromatic liquid produced by the action of nitric acid on benzene, and called from its odor imitation oil of bitter almonds, or essence of mirbane. It is used in perfumery, and is manufactured in large quantities in the preparation of aniline. Fornerly called also nitrobenzol.

(Ni`tro*ben"zol, Ni`tro*ben"zole), ( or ) , n. See Nitrobenzene.

(Ni`tro*cal"cite) n. [Nitro- + calcite.] (Min.) Nitrate of calcium, a substance having a grayish white color, occuring in efflorescences on old walls, and in limestone caves, especially where there exists decaying animal matter.

(Ni`tro*car"bol) n. [Nitro- + carbon + L. oleum oil.] (Chem.) See Nitromethane.

(Ni`tro*cel"lu*lose`) n. [Nitro- + cellulose.] (Chem.) See Gun cotton, under Gun.

(Ni`tro-chlo"ro*form) n. [Nitro- + chloroform.] (Chem.) Same as Chlorpicrin.

(Ni"tro*form) n. [Nitro- + formyl.] (Chem.) A nitro derivative of methane, analogous to chloroform, obtained as a colorless oily or crystalline substance, CH.(NO2)3, quite explosive, and having well-defined acid properties.

(Ni`tro*gel"a*tin) n. [Nitro- + gelatin.] An explosive consisting of gun cotton and camphor dissolved in nitroglycerin. [Written also nitrogelatine.]

(Ni`tro*gen) n. [L. nitrum natron + -gen: cf. F. nitrogène. See Niter.] (Chem.) A colorless nonmetallic element, tasteless and odorless, comprising four fifths of the atmosphere by volume. It is chemically very inert in the free state, and as such is incapable of supporting life (hence the name azote still used by French chemists); but it forms many important compounds, as ammonia, nitric acid, the cyanides, etc, and is a constituent of all organized living tissues, animal or vegetable. Symbol N. Atomic

(Ni"tri*fy) v. t. [imp. & p. p. Nitrified ; p. pr. & vb. n. Nitrifying ] [Niter + -fy: cf. F. nitrifer. See Niter.] (Chem.) To combine or impregnate with nitrogen; to convert, by oxidation, into nitrous or nitric acid; to subject to, or produce by, nitrification.

(Ni"trile) n. [See Nitro- .] (Chem.) Any one of a series of cyanogen compounds; particularly, one of those cyanides of alcohol radicals which, by boiling with acids or alkalies, produce a carboxyl acid, with the elimination of the nitrogen as ammonia.

The nitriles are named with reference to the acids produced by their decomposition, thus, hydrocyanic acid is formic nitrile, and methyl cyanide is acetic nitrile.

(Ni"trite) n. [Cf. F. nitrite. See Niter.] (Chem.) A salt of nitrous acid.

  By PanEris using Melati.

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