ZENANA to ZEND
ZENANA, s. Pers. zanana, from zan, woman; the apartments of a house in which the women of the family are secluded. This Mahommedan custom has been largely adopted by the Hindus of Bengal and the Mahrattas. Zanana is also used for the women of the family themselves. The growth of the admirable Zenana Missions has of late years made this word more familiar in England. But we have heard of more than one instance in which the objects of this Christian enterprise have been taken to be an amiable aboriginal tribethe Zenanas.
[1760.I am informed the Dutch chief at Bimlipatam has embarked his jenninora on board a sloop bound to Chinsurah. In Long, 236.]
Within the Zenana, no longer would they In a starving condition impatiently stay, But break out of prison, and all run away.
Simpkin the Second, 42. Their behaviour last night was so furious, that there seemed the greatest probability of their proceeding to the uttermost extremities, and that they would either throw themselves from the walls, or force open the doors of the zenanahs.Capt. Jaques, quoted in Articles of Charge against Hastings, in Burke, vii. 27.
1789.I have not a doubt but it is much easier for a gentleman to support a whole zenana of Indians than the extravagance of one English lady.Munros Narr. 50.
1790.In a Mussleman Town many complaints arise of the Passys or Toddy Collectors climbing the Trees and overlooking the Jenanas or Womens apartments of principal Natives.Minute in a letter from Bd. of Revenue to Govt. of Bengal, July 12.MS. in India Office.
1809.Musulmauns even carried their depravity so far as to make secret enquiries respecting the females in their districts, and if they heard of any remarkable for beauty, to have them forcibly removed to their zenanas.Lord Valentia, i. 415.
1817.It was represented by the Rajah that they (the bailiffs) entered the house, and endeavoured to pass into the zenana, or womens apartments.J. Mill, Hist. iv. 294.
1826.The women in the zananah, in their impotent rage, flew at Captain Brown, who came off minus a considerable quantity of skin from his face.John Shipp, iii. 49.
1828. Thou sayest Tippoos treasures are in the fort? His treasures and his Zenana; I may even be able to secure his person. Sir W. Scott, The Surgeons Daughter, ch. xii.
ZEND, ZENDAVESTA, s. Zend is the name which has been commonly applied, for more than a hundred
years to that dialect of the ancient Iranian (or Persian) language in which the Avesta or Sacred Booksof
Zorastrianism or the old Persian religion are written. The application of the name in this way was quite
erroneous, as the word Zand when used alone in the Parsi books indicates a commentary or explanation,
and is in fact applied only to some Pahlavi translation, commentary, or gloss. If the name Zend were
now to be used as the designation of any language it would more justly apply to the Pahlavi itself. At
the same time Haug thinks it probable that the term Zand was originally applied to a commentary written
in the same language as the Avesta itself, for in the Pahlavi translations of the Yasna, a part of the Avesta,
where the scriptures are mentioned, Avesta and Zend are coupled together, as of equal authority, which
could hardly have been the case if by Zend the translator meant his own work. No name for the language
of the ancient scriptures has been found in the Parsi books; and Avesta itself has been adopted by
scholars in speaking of the language. The fragments of these scriptures are written in two dialects of
the Eastern Iranian, one, the more ancient, in which the Gathas or hymns are written; and a later one
which was for many centuries the spoken and written language of Bactria.
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