TURAKA to TURKEY
TURAKA, n.p. This word is applied both in Mahratti and in Telugu to the Mahommedans (Turks). [The
usual form in the inscriptions is Turushka (see Bombay Gazetteer, i. pt. i. 189).] Like this is Taruk
(see TAROUK) which the Burmese now apply to the Chinese.
TURBAN, s. Some have supposed this well-known English word to be a corruption of the P.H. sirband,
head-wrap, as in the following:
1727.I bought a few seerbunds and sannoes there (at Cuttack) to know the difference of the prices.A.
Hamilton, i. 394 (see PIECE-GOODS).
This, however, is quite inconsistent with the history of the
word. Wedgewoods suggestion that the word may be derived from Fr. turbin, a whelk, is equally to be
rejected. It is really a corruption of one which, though it seems to be out of use in modern Turkish, was
evidently used by the Turks when Europe first became familiar with the Ottomans and their ways. This
is set forth in the quotation below from Zedlers Lexicon, which is corroborated by those from Rycaut
and from Galland, &c. The proper word was apparently dulband. Some modern Persian dictionaries
give the only meaning of this as a sash. But Meninski explains it as a cloth of fine white muslin; a wrapper
for the head; and Vüllers also gives it this meaning, as well as that of a sash or belt.1 In doing so he
quotes Shakespears Dict., and marks the use as Hindustani-Persian. But a merely Hindustani use of
a Persian word could hardly have become habitual in Turkey in the 15th and 16th centuries. The use of
dulband for a turban was probably genuine Persian, adopted by the Turks. Its etymology is apparently
from Arab. dul, volvere, admitting of application to either a girdle or a head-wrap. From the Turks it
passed in the forms Tulipant, Tolliban, Turbant, &c., into European languages. And we believe that
the flower tulip also has its name from its resemblance to the old Ottoman turban, [a view accepted
by Prof. Skeat (Concise Dict. s.v. tulip, turban)].2 1487.
tele bambagine assai che loro chiamano
turbanti; tele assai colla salda, che lor chiamano sexe (sash).
Letter on presents from the Sultan to L.
de Medici, in Roscoes Lorenzo, ed. 1825, ii. 37172.
c. 1490.Estradiots sont gens comme Genetaires: vestuz, à
pied et à cheval, comme les Turcs, sauf la teste, où ils ne portent ceste toille quils appellent tolliban, et
sont durs gens, et couchent dehors tout lan et leurs chevaulx.Ph. de Commynes, Liv. VIII. ch. viii.
ed. Dupont (1843), ii. 456. Thus given in Danetts translation (1595): These Estradiots are soldiers
like to the Turkes Ianizaries, and attired both on foote and on horsebacke like to the Turks, save that
they weare not vpon their head such a great roule of linnen as the Turkes do called (sic) Tolliban.p.
the Kings Secretarie, who had upon his head a peece of died linen cloth folded vp
like vnto a Turkes Tuliban.Voyage of Master Thomas Candish, in Hakl. iv. 33.
1588.In this canoa
was the Kings Secretarie, who had on his head a piece of died linen cloth folded vp like vnto a Turkes
Tuliban.Cavendish, ibid. iv. 337.
un gros turban blanc à la Turque.Pyrard de Laval, i.
98; [Hak. Soc. i. 132 and 165].
1611.Cotgraves French Dict. has:
Toliban: m. A Turbant or Turkish
Tolopan, as Turbant.
Turban: m. A Turbant; a Turkish hat, of white and fine linnen wreathed into
a rundle; broad at the bottom to enclose the head, and lessening, for ornament, towards the top.
se un Cristiano fosse trovato con turbante bianco in capo, sarebbe perciò costretto o a rinegare o
a morire. Questo turbante poi lo portano Turchi, di varie forme.P. della Valle, i. 96.
Sultan of Socotora
his clothes are Surat Stuffes, after the Arabs manner
a very good Turbant, but
bare footed.Sir T. Roe, [Hak. Soc. i. 32].
Their Attire is after the Turkish fashion, Turbants only
excepted, insteed whereof they have a kind of Capp, rowled about with a black Turbant.De Monfart,
1619.Nel giorno della qual festa tutti Persiani più spensierati, e fin gli uomini grandi, e il medesimo
rè, si vestono in abito succinto all uso di Mazanderan; e con certi berrettini, non troppo buoni, in testa,
perchè i turbanti si guasterebbono e sarebbero di troppo impaccio.
P. della Valle, ii. 31; [Hak. Soc.
comp. i. 43].
1630.Some indeed have sashes of silke and gold, tulipanted about their heads.
T. Herbert, p. 128.
His way was made by 30 gallant young gentlemen vested in crimson saten; their
Tulipants were of silk and silver wreathd about with cheynes of gold.Ibid. p. 139.
head they wear great Tulbands (Tulbande) which they touch with the hand when they say salam to
any one.Baldaeus (Germ. version), 33.
Trois Tulbangis venoient de front après luy, et ils protoient
chascun un beau tulban orné et enrichy daigrettes.Journ. dAnt. Galland, i. 139.
of Castes or Tribes of all India are distinguished by the different Modes of binding their Turbats.Fryer,
1674.El Tanadar de un golpo cortò las repetidas bueltas del turbante a un Turco, y la
cabeça asta la mitad, de que cayò muerte.Faria y Sousa, Asia Port. ii. 179180.