TAMARIND-FISH, s. This is an excellent zest, consisting, according to Dr. Balfour, of white pomfret, cut in transverse slices, and preserved in tamarinds. The following is a note kindly given by the highest authority on Indian fish matters, Dr. Francis Day:

“My account of Tamarind fish is very short, and in my Fishes of Malabar as follows:—

“ ‘The best Tamarind fish is prepared from the Seir fish (see SEER-FISH), and from the Lates calcarifer, known as Cockup in Calcutta; and a rather inferior quality from the Polynemus (or Roe-ball, to which genus the Mango-fish belongs), and the more common from any kind of fish.’ The above refers to Malabar, and more especially to Cochin. Since I wrote my Fishes of Malabar I have made many inquiries as to Tamarind fish, and found that the white pomfret, where it is taken, appears to be the best for making the preparation.”

TAMBERANEE, s. Malayal. tamburan, ‘Lord; God, or King.’ It is a title of honour among the Nairs, and is also assumed by Saiva monks in the Tamil countries. [The word is derived from Mal. tam, ‘one’s own,’ puran, ‘lord.’ The junior male members of the M alayali Raja’s family, until they come of age, are called Tamban, and after that Tamburan. The female members are similarly styled Tambatti and Tamburatti (Logan, Malabar, iii. Gloss. s.v.).]

1510.—“Dice l’altro Tamarai: zoe Per Dio? L’altro respõde Tamarani: zoe Per Dio.”—Varthema, 1517, f. 45.

[c. 1610.—“They (the Nairs) call the King in their language Tambiraine, meaning ‘God.’ ”—Pyrard de Laval, Hak. Soc. i. 357.]

TANA, TANNA, n.p. Thana, a town on the Island of Salsette on the strait (‘River of Tana’) dividing that island from the mainland and 20 m. N.E. of Bombay, and in the early Middle Ages the seat of a Hindu kingdom of the Konkan (see CONCAN), as well as a seaport of importance. It is still a small port, and is the chief town of the District which bears its name.

c. 1020.—“From Dhár southwards to the river Nerbudda, nine; thence to Mahratdes…eighteen; thence to Konkan, of which the capital is Tana, on the seashore, twenty-five parasangs.”—Al-Biruni, in Elliot, i. 60.

[c. 1150.—“Tanah,” miswritten Banah. See under TABASHEER.]

1298.—“Tana is a great Kingdom lying towards the West.…There is much traffic here, and many ships and merchants frequent the place.”—Marco Polo, Bk. III. ch. 27.

1321.—“After their blessed martyrdom, which occurred on the Thursday before Palm Sunday in Thana of India, I baptised about 90 persons in certain city called Parocco, ten days’ journey distant therefrom, and I have since baptised more than twenty, besides thirty-five who were baptised between Thana and Supera (Supara).”—Letter of Friar Jordanus, in Cathay, &c., 226.

c. 1323.—“And having thus embarked I passed over in 28 days to Tana, where for the faith of Christ four of our Minor Friars had suffered martyrdom.…The land is under the dominion of the Saracens.…”—Fr. Odoric, Ibid. i. 57–58.

1516.—“25 leagues further on the coast is a fortress of the before-named king, called Tana- Mayambu” (this is perhaps rather Bombay).—Barbosa, 68.

1529.—“And because the norwest winds blew strong, winds contrary to his course, after going a little way he turned and anchored in sight of the island, where were stationed the foists with their captain-in-chief Alixa, who seeing our fleet in motion put on his oars and assembled at the River of Tana, and when the wind came round our fleet made sail, and anchored at the mouth of the River of Tana, for the wind would not allow of its entering.”—Correa, iii. 290.

1673.—“The Chief City of this Island is called Tanaw; in which are Seven Churches and Colleges, the chiefest one of the Paulistines (see PAULIST).… Here are made good Stuffs of Silk and Cotton.”—Fryer, 73.

TANA, THANA, s. A Police station. Hind. thana, thana, [Skt. sthana, ‘a place of standing, a post’]. From the quotation following it would seem that the term originally meant a fortified post, with its garrison, for the military occupation of the country; a meaning however closely allied to the present use.

c. 1640–50.—“Thánah means a corps of cavalry, matchlockmen, and archers, stationed within an enclosure. Their duty is to guard the roads, to hold the places surrounding the Thánah, and to despatch provisions (rasad, see RUSSUD) to the next Thánah.”—Pádisháh námah, quoted by Blochmann, in Ain, i. 345.

  By PanEris using Melati.

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