successors, by a Firman from the Sophi or Emperor.”—Lockyer, 220.

1727.—“The whole Reign of the last Sophi or King, was managed by such Vermin, that the Ballowches and Mackrans … threw off the Yoke of Obedience first, and in full Bodies fell upon their Neighbours in Caramania.”—A. Hamilton, i. 108; [ed. 1744, i. 105].

1815.—“The Suffavean monarchs were revered and deemed holy on account of their descent from a saint.”—Malcolm, H. of Pers. ii. 427.

1828.—“It is thy happy destiny to follow in the train of that brilliant star whose light shall shed a lustre on Persia, unknown since the days of the earlier Soofees.”—J. B. Fraser, The Kuzzilbash, i. 192.

SOUBA, SOOBAH, s. Hind. from Pers. suba. A large Division or Province of the Mogul Empire (e.g. the Subah of the Deccan, the Subah of Bengal). The word is also frequently used as short for Subadar (see SOUBADAR), ‘the Viceroy’ (over a suba). It is also “among the Mar athas sometimes applied to a smaller division comprising from 5 to 8 tarafs” (Wilson).

c. 1594.—“In the fortieth year of his majesty’s reign, his dominions consisted of 105 Sircars. … The empire was then parcelled into 12 grand divisions, and each was committed to the government of a Soobadar … upon which occasion the Sovereign of the world distributed 12 Lacks of beetle. The names of the Soobahs were Allahabad, Agra, Owdh, Ajmeer, Ahmedabad, Bahar, Bengal, Dehly, Cabul, Lahoor, Multan, and Malwa: when his majesty conquered Berar, Khandeess, and Ahmednagur, they were formed into three Soobahs, increasing the number to 15.”—Ayeen, ed. Gladwin, ii. 1–5; [ed. Jarrett, ii. 115].

1753.—“Princes of this rank are called Subahs. Nizam al muluck was Subah of the Decan (or Southern) provinces. … The Nabobs of Condanore, Cudapah, Carnatica, Yalore, &c., the Kings of Tritchinopoly, Mysore, Tanjore, are subject to this Subah-ship. Here is a subject ruling a larger empire than any in Europe, excepting that of the Muscovite.”—Orme, Fragments, 398–399.

1760.—“Those Emirs or Nabobs, who govern great Provinces, are stiled Subahs, which imports the same as Lord-Lieutenants or Vice- Roys.”—Memoirs of the Revolution in Bengal, p. 6.

1763.—“From the word Soubah, signifying a province, the Viceroy of this vast territory (the Deccan) is called Soubahdar, and by the Europeans improperly Soubah.”—Orme, i. 35.

1765.—“Let us have done with this ringing of changes upon Soubahs; there’s no end to it. Let us boldly dare to be Soubah ourselves. …”—Holwell, Hist. Events, &c., i. 183.

1783.—“They broke their treaty with him, in which they stipulated to pay 400,000l. a year to the Subah of Bengal.”—Burke’s Speech on Fox’s India Bill, Works, iii. 468.

1804.—“It is impossible for persons to have behaved in a more shuffling manner than the Soubah’s servants have. …”—Wellington, ed. 1837, iii. 11.

1809.—“These (pillars) had been removed from a sacred building by Monsieur Dupleix, when he assumed the rank of Soubah.”—Lord Valentia, i. 373.

1823.—“The Delhi Sovereigns whose vast empire was divided into Soubahs, or Governments, each of which was ruled by a Soubahdar or Viceroy.”—Malcolm, Cent. India, i. 2.

SOUBADAR, SUBADAR, s. Hind. from Pers. subadar, ‘one holding a suba’ (see SOUBA).

a. The Viceroy, or Governor of a suba.

b. A local commandant or chief officer.

c. The chief native officer of a company of Sepoys; under the original constitution of such companies, its actual captain.

a. See SOUBA.


1673.—“The Subidar of the Town being a Person of Quality … he (the Ambassador) thought good to give him a Visit.”—Fryer, 77.

1805.—“The first thing that the Subidar of Vire Rajendra Pettah did, to my utter astonishment, was to come up and give me such a shake by the hand, as would have done credit to a Scotsman.”—Letter in Leyden’s Life, 49.

1747.—“14th September … Read the former from Tellicherry adviseing that … in a day or two they shall despatch another Subidar with 129 more Sepoys to our assistance.”—MS. Consultations at Fort St. David, in India Office.

1760.—“One was the Subahdar, equivalent to the Captain of a Company.”—Orme, iii. 610.

c. 1785.—“… the Subahdars or commanding officers of the black troops.”—Carraccioli, L. of Clive, iii. 174.

1787.—“A Troop of Native Cavalry on the present Establishment consists of 1 European Subaltern, 1 European Serjeant, 1 Subidar, 3 Jemadars, 4 Havildars, 4 Naiques (naik), 1 Trumpeter, 1 Farrier, and 68 Privates.”—Regns. for the Hon. Comp.’s Black Troops on the Coast of Coromandel, &c., p. 6.

  By PanEris using Melati.

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