iv. 222–3.

[1886.—“Every Burman has for some time during his life to be a Pohngee, or monk.”—Lady Dufferin, Viceregal Life, 177.]

POORANA, s. Skt. purana, ‘old,’ hence ‘legendary,’ and thus applied as a common name to 18 books which contain the legendary mythology of the Brahmans.

1612.—“… These books are divided into bodies, members, and joints (cortos, membros, e articulos) … six which they call Xastra (see SHASTER), which are the bodies; eighteen which they call Puraná, which are the members; twenty-eight called Agamon, which are the joints.”—Couto, Dec. V. liv. vi. cap. 3.

1651.—“As their Poranas, i.e. old histories, relate.”—Rogerius, 153.

[1667.—“When they have acquired a knowledge of Sanscrit … they generally study the Purana, which is an abridgment and interpretation of the Beths” (see VEDAS).—Bernier, ed. Constable, p. 335.]

c. 1760.—“Le puran comprend dix-huit livres qui renferment l’histoire sacrée, qui contient les dogmes de la religion des Bramines.”—Encyclopédie, xxvii. 807.

1806.—“Ceux-ci, calculoient tout haut de mémoire tandis que d’autres, plus avancés, lisoient, d’un ton chantant, leurs Pourans.”—Haafner, i. 130.

POORUB, and POORBEEA, ss. Hind. purab, purb, ‘the East,’ from Skt. purva or purba, ‘in front of,’ as pascha (Hind. pachham) means ‘behind’ or ‘westerly’ and dakshina, ‘right-hand’ or southerly. In Upper India the term means usually Oudh, the Benares division, and Behar. Hence Poorbeea (purbiya), a man of those countries, was, in the days of the old Bengal army, often used for a sepoy, the majority being recruited in those provinces.

1553.—“Omaum (Humayun) Patxiah … resolved to follow Xerchan (Sher Khan) and try his fortunes against him … and they met close to the river Ganges before it unites with the river Jamona, where on the West bank of the river there is a city called Canose (Canauj), one of the chief of the kingdom of Dely. Xerchan was beyond the river in the tract which the natives call Purba.…”—Barros, IV. ix. 9.

[1611.—“Pierb is 400 cose long.”—Jourdain, quoted in Sir T. Roe, Hak. Soc. ii. 538.]

1616.—“Bengala, a most spacious and fruitful province, but more properly to be called a kingdom, which hath two very large provinces within it, Purb and Patan, the one lying on the east, the other on the west side of the river.”—Terry, ed. 1665, p. 357.

1666.—“La Province de Halabas s’appelloit autrefois Purop. …”—Thevenot, v. 197.

[1773.—“Instead of marching with the great army he had raised into the Purbunean country … we were informed he had turned his arms against us. …”—Ives, 91.]


“… My lands were taken away,
And the Company gave me a pension of just eight annas a day;
And the Poorbeahs swaggered about our streets as if they had done it all. …”

Attar Singh loquitur, by ‘Sowar,’ Sir M. Durand in an Indian paper, the name and date lost.

POOTLY NAUTCH, s. Properly Hind. kath-putli-nach, ‘wooden-puppetdance.’ A puppet show.

c. 1817.—“The day after tomorrow will be my lad James Dawson’s birthday, and we are to have a puttully- nautch in the evening.”—Mrs. Sherwood’s Stories, 291.

POPPER-CAKE, in Bombay, and in Madras popadam, ss. These are apparently the same word and thing, though to the former is attributed a Hind. and Mahr. origin papar, Skt. parpata, and to the latter a Tamil one, pappadam, as an abbreviation of paruppu-adam, ‘lentil cake.’ [The Madras Gloss. gives Tel. appadam, Tam. appalam (see HOPPER), and Mal. pappatam, from parippu, ‘dhall,’ ata, ‘cake.’] It is a kind of thin scone or wafer, made of any kind of pulse or lentil flour, seasoned with assafoetida, &c., fried in oil, and in W. India baked crisp, and often eaten at European tables as an accompaniment to curry. It is not bad, even to a novice. 1814.—“They are very fond of a thin cake, or wafer, called popper, made from the flour of oord or mash … highly seasoned with assa-foetida; a salt called popper-khor; and a very hot massaula (see MUSSALLA), compounded of turmeric, black pepper, ginger, garlic, several kinds of warm seeds, and a quantity of the hottest Chili pepper.”—Forbes, Or. Mem. ii. 50; [2nd ed. i. 347].

1820.—“Papadoms (fine cakes made of gram-flour and a fine species of alkali, which gives them an agreeable salt taste, and serves the purpose of yeast, making them rise, and become very crisp

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