POLIGAR to POLONGA
[1853.It was evident that the original breed had been crossed with the bull-dog, or the large Poligar of India.Campbell, Old Forest Ranger, 3rd ed. p. 12.]
POLLAM, s. Tam. palaiyam; Tel. palemu; (see under POLIGAR). 1783.The principal reason which
they assigned against the extirpation of the polygars (see POLIGAR) was that the weavers were protected
in their fortresses. They might have added, that the Company itself which stung them to death, had
been warmed in the bosom of these unfortunate princes; for on the taking of Madras by the French,
it was in their hospitable pollams that most of the inhabitants found refuge and protection.Burkes
Speech on Foxs E. I. Bill, in Works, iii. 488.
POLO, s. The game of hockey on horseback, introduced of late years into England, under this name,
which comes from Balti; polo being properly in the language of that region the ball used in the game.
The game thus lately revived was once known and practised (though in various forms) from Provence to
the borders of China (see CHICANE). It h
ad continued to exist down to our own
day, it would seem,
extreme East and the extreme West of the Himalaya, viz. at Manipur in the East (between Cachar and Burma), and on the West in the high valley of the Indus (in Ladak, Balti, Astor and Gilgit, and extending into Chitral). From the former it was first adopted by our countrymen at Calcutta, and a little later (about 1864) it was introduced into the Punjab, almost simultaneously from the Lower
nces and from Kashmir, where the summer visitors had taken it up. It was first played in England, it would seem at Aldershot, in July 1871, and in August of the same year at Dublin in the Phnix Park. The next year it was played in many places.1 But the first mention we can find in the Times is a notice
of a match at Lillie-Bridge, July 11, 1874, in the next days paper. There is mention of the game in the
Illustrated London News of July 20, 1872, where it is treated as a new invention by British officers in
India. [According to the author of the Badminton Library treatise on the game, it was adopted by Lieut.
Sherer in 1854, and a club was formed in 1859. The same writer fixes its introduction into the Punjab
and N.W.P. in 186162. See also an article in Bailys Magazine on The Early History of Polo (June
1890). The Central Asian form is described, under the name of Baiga or Kok-büra, grey wolf, by Schuyler
(Turkistan, i. 268 seqq.) and that in Dardistan by Biddulph (Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh, 84 seqq.).]
In Ladak it is not indigenous, but an introduction from Baltistan. See a careful and interesting account
of the game of those parts in Mr. F. Drews excellent book, The Jummoo and Kashmir Territories,
1875, pp. 380392.
1835.The ponies of Muneepoor hold a very conspicuous rank in the estimation of the inhabitants. The national game of Hockey, which is played by every male of the country capable of sitting a horse, renders them all expert equestrians; and it was by men and horses so trained, that the princes of Muneepoor were able for many years not only to repel the aggressions of the Burmahs, but to save the whole country and plant their banners on the banks of the Irrawattee.Pembertons Report on the E. Frontier of Br. India, 3132.
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