MANGELIN to MANGO
MANGELIN, s. A small weight, corresponding in a general way to a carat (q.v.), used in the S. of India
and in Ceylon for weighing precious stones. The word is Telegu manjali; in Tamil manjadi, [from Skt.
manju, beautiful]; the seed of the Adenanthera pavonina (Compare RUTTEE). On the origin of this
weight see Sir W. Elliots Coins of S. India. The manjadi seed was used as a measure of weight from
very early times. A parcel of 50 taken at random gave an average weight of 4·13 grs. Three parcels of
10 each, selected by eye as large, gave average 5·02 and 5·03 (op. cit. p.47).
sell by a weight which is called a Mangiar, which is equal to 2 tare and 2/3, and 2
tare make a carat of good weight, and 4 tare weigh one fanam. Barbosa, in Ramusio, i. f. 321v.
Ceylon) A calamja contains 20 mamgelins, each mamgelim 8 grains of rice; a Portugues of gold
weighs 8 calamjas and 2 mangelius.A. Nunez, 35.
1584.There is another sort of weight called
Mangiallino, which is 5 graines of Venice weight, and therewith they weigh diamants and other jewels.Barret,
in Hakl. ii. 409.
1611.Quem não sabe a grandeza das minas de finissimos diamantes do Reyno
de Bisnaga, donde cada dia, e cada hora se tiram peças de tamanho de hum ovo, e muitas de
sessenta e oitenta mangelins. Couto, Dialogo do Soldato Pratico, 154.
1665.Le poids principal
des Diamans est le mangelin; il pèse cinq grains et trois cinquièmes.Thevenot, v. 293.
mine of Raolconda they weigh by Mangelins, a Mangelin being one Carat and three quarters, that
is 7 grains.
At the Mine of Soumelpore in Bengal they weigh by Ratis (see RUTTEE), and the Rati is
7/8 of a Carat, or 3½ grains. In the Kingdoms of Golconda and Visapour, they make use of Mangelins,
but a Mangelin in those parts is not above 1 carat and 3/8. The Portugals in Goa make use of the
same Weights in Goa; but a Mangelin there is not above 5 grains.Tavernier, E.T. ii. 141; [ed. Ball,
ii. 87, and see ii. 433.]
MANGO, s. The royal fruit of the Mangifera indica, when of good quality is one of the richest and best
fruits in the world. The original of the word is Tamil man-kay or man-gay, i.e. man fruit (the tree being
mamarum, man- tree). The Portuguese formed from this manga, which we have adopted as mango.
The tree is wild in the forests of various parts of India; but the fruit of the wild tree is uneatable.
has sometimes been supposed to be Malay; but it was in fact introduced into the Archipelago, along with
the fruit itself, from S. India. Rumphius (Herb. Amboyn. i. 95) traces its then recent introduction into the
islands, and says that it is called (Malaicè) mangka, vel vulgo Manga et Mapelaam. This last word is
only the Tamil Mapalam, i.e. man fruit again. The close approximation of the Malay mangka to the
Portu guese form might suggest that the latter name was derived from Malacca. But we see manga
already used by Varthema, who, according to Garcia, never really went beyond Malabar. [Mr. Skeat
writes: The modern standard Malay word is mangga, from which the Port. form was probably taken.
The other Malay form quoted from Rumphius is in standard Malay mapelam, with mepelam,
hempelam, ampelam, and pelam or plam as variants. The Javanese is pelem.]
The word has been taken to Madagascar,
apparently by the Malayan colonists, whose language has left so large an impression there, in the precise
shape mangka. Had the fruit been an Arab importation it is improbable that the name would have been
introduced in that form.
The N. Indian names are Am and Amba, and variations of these we find in
several of the older European writers. Thus Fr. Jordanus, who had been in the Konkan, and appreciated
the progenitors of the Goa and Bombay Mango (c. 1328), calls the fruit Aniba. Some 30 years later
John de Marignolli calls the tree amburan, having a fruit of excellent fragrance and flavour, somewhat
like a peach (Cathay, &c., ii. 362). Garcia de Orta shows how early the Bombay fruit was prized. He
seems to have been the owner of the parent tree. The Skt. name is Amra, and this we find in Hwen
Tsang (c. 645) phoneticised as An-mo-lo.
The mango is probably the fruit alluded to by Theophrastus
as having caused dysentery in the army of Alexander. (See the passage S.V. JACK).
c. 1328.Est etiam alia arbor quae fructus facit ad modum pruni, grosissimos, qui vocantur Aniba. Hi
sunt fructus ita dulces et amabiles, quod ore tenus exprimi hoc minimè possit.Fr. Jordanus, in Rec.
de Voyages, &c., iv. 42.
c. 1334.The mango tree (anba) resembles an orange-tree, but is larger and
more leafy; no other tree gives so much shade, but this shade is unwholesome, and whoever sleeps
under it gets fever.Ibn Batuta, iii. 125. At ii. 185 he writes anba. [The same charge is made against
the tamarind; see Burton, Ar. Nights, iii. 81.]
c. 1349.They have also another tree called Amburan,
having a fruit of excellent fragrance and flavour, somewhat like a peach.John de Marignolli, in Cathay,