MANDARIN LANGUAGE, s. The language spoken by the official and literary class in China, as opposed to local dialects. In Chinese it is called Kuan-Hua. It is substantially the language of the people of the northern and middle zones of China, extending to Yun-nan. It is not to be confounded with the literary style which is used in books. [See Ball, Things Chinese, 169 seq.]

1674.—“The Language … is called Quenhra (hua), or the Language of Mandarines, because as they spread their command they introduced it, and it is used throughout all the Empire, as Latin in Europe. It is very barren, and as it has more Letters far than any other, so it has fewer words.”—Faria y Sousa, E.T. ii. 468.

MANGALORE, n.p. The only place now well known by this name is (a) Mangal-ur, a port on the coast of Southern Canara and chief town of that district, in lat. 12° 51’ N. In Mir Husain Ali’s Life of Haidar it is called “Gorial Bunder,” perhaps a corr. of Kandial, which is said in the Imp. Gaz. to be the modern native name. [There is a place called Gurupura close by; see Madras Gloss. S.V. Goorpore.] The name in this form is found in an inscription of the 11th century, whatever may have been its original form and etymology. [The present name is said to be taken from the temple of Mangala Devi.] But the name in approximate forms (from mañgala, ‘gladness’) is common in India. One other port (b) on the coast of Peninsular Guzerat was formerly well known, now commonly called Mungrole. And another place of the name (c) Manglavar in the valley of Swat, north of Peshawar, is mentioned by Hwen T’sang as a city of Gandhara. It is probably the same that appears in Skt. literature (see Williams, S.V. Mangala) as the capital of Udyana.
a. Mangalore of Canara.

c. 150.—[Greek Text] “Metaxu de tou Yeudostomou kai tou BarioV poleiV aide Magganour.”— Ptolemy, VII. i. 86.

c. 545. —“And the most notable places of trade are these … and then the five ports of Male from which pepper is exported, to wit, Parti, Mangaruth.…”—Cosmas, in Cathay, &c. clxxvii.

[c. 1300.—“Manjarur.” See under SHINKALI.]

c. 1343. — “Quitting Fakanur (see BACANORE) we arrived after three days at the city of Manjarur, which is large and situated on an estuary.… It is here that most of the merchants of Fars and Yemen land; pepper and ginger are very abundant.” —Ibn Batuta, iv. 79-80.

1442.—“After having passed the port of Bendinaneh (see PANDARANI) situated on the coast of Melibar, (he) reached the port of Mangalor, which forms the frontier of the kingdom of Bidjanagar.…”—Abdurrazzak, in India in the XVth Cent., 20.

1516.—“There is another large river towards the south, along the sea-shore, where there is a very large town, peopled by Moors and Gentiles, of the kingdom of Narsinga, called Mangalor.… They also ship there much rice in Moorish ships for Aden, also pepper, which thenceforward the earth begins to produce.”—Barbosa, 83.

1727.—“The Fields here bear two Crops of Corn yearly in the Plains; and the higher Grounds produce Pepper, Bettle-nut, Sandalwood, Iron and Steel, which make Mangulore a Place of pretty good Trade.”— A. Hamilton, i. 285, [ed. 1744].
b. Mangalor or Mungrole in Guzerat.

c. 150.—[Greek Text] “SurastrhnhV

[Greek Text] Surastra kwmh
[Greek Text] Mohoglwssoh emporion…” Ptolemy, VII. i. 3.

1516.—“… there is another town of commerce, which has a very good port, and is called Surati Mangalor, where also many ships of Malabar touch.”—Barbosa, 59.

1536.—“… for there was come another catur with letters, in which the Captain of Diu urgently called for help; telling how the King (of Cambay) had equipped large squadrons in the Ports of the Gulf … alleging … that he was sending them to Mangalor to join others in an expedition against Sinde … and that all this was false, for he was really sending them in the expectation that the Rumis would come to Mangälor next September.…”—Correa, iv. 701.

1648.—This place is called Mangerol by Van Twist, p. 13.

1727.—“The next maritime town is Mangaroul. It admits of Trade, and affords coarse Callicoes, white and died, Wheat, Pulse, and Butter for export.”— A. Hamilton, i. 136, [ed. 1744].
c. Manglavar in Swat.

c. 630.—“Le royaume de Ou-tchang-na (Oudyâna) a environ 5000 li de tour … on compte 4 ou 5 villes fortifiées. La pluspart des rois de ce pays ont pris pour capitale la ville de Moung-kie-li (Moungali).… La population est fort nombreuse.”—Hwen T sang, in Pèl. Bouddh. ii. 131-2.

1858. — “Mongkieli se retrouve dans Manglavor (in Sanskrit Mañgala-poura) … ville située près de la rive gauche de la rivière de

  By PanEris using Melati.

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