GRUNTH, s. Panjabi Granth, from Skt. grantha, lit. ‘a knot,’ leaves tied together by a string. ‘The Book,’ i.e. the Scripture of the Sikhs, containing the hymns composed or compiled by their leaders from Nanak (1469-1539) onwards. The Granth has been translated by Dr. Trumpp, and published, at the expense of the Indian Government.

1770.—“As the young man (Nanak) was early introduced to the knowledge of the most esteemed writings of the Mussulmen…he made it a practice in his leisure hours to translate literally or virtually, as his mind prompted him, such of their maxims as made the deepest impression on his heart. This was in the idiom of Pendjab, his maternal language. Little by little he strung together these loose sentences, reduced them into some order, and put them in verses.…His collection became numerous; it took the form of a book which was entitled Grenth.”—Seir Mutaqherin, i. 89.

1798.—“A book entitled the Grunth…is the only typical object which the Sicques have admitted into their places of worship.”—G. Forster’s Travels, i. 255.

1817.—“The fame of Nannak’s book was diffused. He gave it a new name, Kirrunt.”—Mill’s Hist. ii. 377.

c. 1831—“…Au centre du quel est le temple d’or où est gardé le Grant ou livre sacré des Sikes.”—Jacquemont, Correspondance, ii. 166.

[1838.—“There was a large collection of priests, sitting in a circle, with the Grooht, their holy book, in the centre…”—Miss Eden, Up the Country, ii. 7.]

GRUNTHEE, s. Panj. granthi from granth (see GRUNTH). A sort of native chaplain attached to Sikh regiments. [The name Granthi appears among the Hindi mendicant castes of the Panjab in Mr. Maclagan’s Census Rep., 1891, p. 300.]

GRUNTHUM, s. This (grantham) is a name, from the same Skt. word as the last, given in various odd forms to the Sanskrit language by various Europeans writing in S. India during the 16th and 17th centuries. The term properly applied to the character in which the Sanskrit books were written.

1600.—“In these verses is written, in a particular language, called Gerodam, their Philosophy and Theology, which the Bramens study and read in Universities all over India.”—Lucena, Vida do Padre F. Xavier, 95.

1646.—“Cette langue correspond à la nostre Latine, parceque les seules Lettrés l’apprennent; il se nomment Guirindans.”—Barretto, Rel. de la Prov. de la Malabar, 257.

1727.—“…their four law-books, Sama Vedam, Urukku Vedam, Edirwarna Vedam, and Adir Vedam, which are all written in the Girandams, and are held in high esteem by the Bramins.”—Valentijn, v. (Ceylon), 399.

„ “Girandam (by others called Kerendum, and also Sanskrits) is the language of the Bramins and the learned.”—Ibid. 386.

1753.—“Les Indiens du pays se donnent le nom de Tamules, et on sait que la langue vulgaire différente du Sanskret, et du Grendam, qui sont les langues sacrées, porte le même nom.”—D’ Anville. 117.

GUANA, IGUANA, s. This is not properly an Indian term, nor the name of an Indian species, but, as in many other cases, it has been applied by transfer from superficially resembling genera in the new Indies, to the old. The great lizards, sometimes called guanas in India, are apparently monitors. It must be observed, however, that approximating Indian names of lizards have helped the confusion. Thus the large monitor to which the name guana is often applied in India, is really called in Hindi goh (Skt. godha), Singhalese goya. The true iguana of America is described by Oviedo in the first quotation under the name of iuana. [The word is Span. iguana, from Carib iwana, written in early writers hiuana, igoana, iuanna or yuana. See N.E.D. and Stanf. Dict.]

c. 1535.—“There is in this island an animal called Iuana, which is here held to be amphibious (neutrale), i.e. doubtful whether fish or flesh, for it frequents the rivers and climbs the trees as well.…It is a Serpent, bearing to one who knows it not a horrid and frightful aspect. It has the hands and feet like those of a great lizard, the head much larger, but almost of the same fashion, with a tail 4 or 5 palms in length.…And the animal, formed as I have described, is much better to eat than to look at,” &c.—Oviedo, in Ramusio, iii. f. 156v, 157.

c. 1550.—“We also used to catch some four-footed animals called iguane, resembling our lizards in shape…the females are most delicate food.”—Girolami Benzoni, p. 140.

1634.—“De Lacertae quâdam specie, Incolis Liguan. Est…genus venenosissimum,” &c.—Jac. Bontii, Lib. v. cap. 5. p. 57. (See GECKO.)

1673.—“Guiana, a Creature like a Crocodile, which Robbers use to lay hold on by their Tails, when they clamber Houses.”—Fryèr, 116.

1681.—Knox, in his Ceylon, speaks of two

  By PanEris using Melati.

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