FIRMAUN to FOOLS RACK
FIRMAUN, s. Pers. farman, an order, patent, or passport, der. from farmudan, to order. Sir T. Roe
below calls it firma, as if suggestive of the Italian for signature.
wrote him a letter called Firmao.
Castanheda, Bk. viii. ch. 99.
[1602.They said that he
had a Firmao of the Grand Turk to go overland to the Kingdom of (Portugal).
Couto, Dec. viii. ch.
1606.We made our journey having a Firman (Firmão) of safe conduct from the same Soltan of
Shiraz.Gouvea, f. 140b.
[1614.But if possible, bring their chaps, their Firms, for what they say
or promise. Foster, Letters, ii. 28.]
1616.Then I moued him for his favour for an English Factory
to be resident in the Towne, which hee willingly granted, and gave present order to the Buxy to draw a
for their residence.Sir T. Roe, in Purchas, i. 541; [Hak. Soc. i. 93; also see i. 47].
21st April the Bassa sent me a Firman or Letter of credentials to all his lords and Governors.T. Van
den Broecke, 32.
1673.Our Usage by the Pharmaund (or charters) granted successively from their
Emperors, is kind enough, but the better because our Naval Power curbs them. Fryer, 115.
(the English) complain, and not without a Cause; they having a Phirmaund, and Hodgee Sophee
Cauns Perwannas thereon, in their hands, which cleared them thereof; and to pay Custome now they
will not consent, but will rather withdraw their trading. Wherefore their desire is that for 3,000 rup. Piscash
(as they paid formerly at Hugly) and 2,000 r. more yearly on account of Jidgea, which they are willing
to pay, they may on that condition have a grant to be Custome Free.Nabobs Letter to Vizier (MS.), in
Hedges Diary, July 18; [Hak. Soc. i. 101].
by her came Bengal Peons who brought in several
letters and a firmaun from the new Nabob of Bengal.Wheeler, i. 213.
c. 1690.Now we may see
the Moguls Stile in his Phirmaund to be sent to Surat, as it stands translated by the Companys Interpreter.A.
Hamilton, i. 227; [ed. 1744, i. 230].
FISCAL, s. Dutch Fiscaal; used in Ceylon for Sheriff; a relic of the Dutch rule in the island. [It was also
used in the Dutch settlements in Bengal (see quotation from Hedges, below). In Malabar the Fiscal
was a Dutch Superintendent of Police, Justice of the Peace and Attorney General in criminal cases.
The office and title of Fiscal was retained in British Cochin till 1860, when the designation was changed
into Tahsildar and Sub-Magistrate.(Logan, Malabar, iii. Gloss. s.v.)]
the late Dutch Fiscalls Budgero.
See quotation from Hedges, under DEVILS REACH.]
FLORICAN, FLORIKIN, s. A name applied in India to two species of small bustard, the Bengal Florican
(Sypheotides bengalensis, Gmelin), and the Lesser Florican (S. auritus, Latham), the likh of Hind., a
word which is not in the dictionaries. [In the N.W.P. the common name for the Bengal Florican is charas,
P. charz. The name Curmoor in Bombay (see quotation from Forbes below) seems to be khar-mor,
the grass peacock. Another Mahr. name, tanamora, has the same meaning.] The origin of the word
Florican is exceedingly obscure; see Jerdon below. It looks like Dutch. [The N.E.D. suggests a connection
with Flanderkin, a native of Flanders.] Littré has: Florican
Nom à Ceylon dun grand échassier que lon
présume être un grue. This is probably mere misapprehension in his authority.
1780.The floriken, a most delicious bird of the buzzard (sic!) kind.Munros Narrative, 199.
A floriken at eve we saw
And killd in yonder glen,
When lo! it came to table raw,
And rouzed (sic) the
rage of Ben.
In Seton-Karr, i. 98.
1807.The floriken is a species of the bustard.
The cock is a noble bird, but its flight is very heavy
if only a wing be broken
he will run off at such a rate as will baffle most spaniels.
are several kinds of the floriken
the bastard floriken is much smaller.
delight in grassy
plains, keeping clear of heavy cover.Williamson, Oriental Field Sports, 104.
1813.The florican or
curmoor (Otis houbara, Lin.) exceeds all the Indian wild fowl in delicacy of flavour.Forbes, Or. Mem.
ii. 275; [2nd ed. i. 501].
bringing with him a brace of florikens, which he had shot the previous
day. I had never seen the bird before; it is somewhat larger than a blackcock, with brown and black plumage,
and evidently of the bustard species.Heber, i. 258.
1862.I have not been able to trace the origin of