CAMEEZE to CANARA
CAMEEZE, s. This word (kamis) is used in colloquial H. and Tamil for a shirt. It comes from the Port.
camisa. But that word is directly from the Arab kamis, a tunic. Was St. Jeromes Latin word an earlier
loan from the Arabic, or the source of the Arabic word? probably the latter ; [so N.E.D. s.v. Camise].
The Mod. Greek Dict. of Sophocles has [Greek Text] kamision. Camesa is, according to the Slang
Dictionary, used in the cant of English thieves ; and in more ancient slang it was made into commission.
c. 400.Solent militantes habere lineas quas Camisias vocant, sic aptas membris et adstrictas corporibus,
ut expediti sint vel ad cursum, vel ad praelia
quocumque necessitas traxerit.Scti. Hieronymi Epist.
(lxiv.) ad Fabiolam, § 11.
1404.And to the said Ruy Gonzalez he gave a big horse, an ambler, for they
prize a horse that ambles, furnished with saddle and bridle, very well according to their fashion ; and
besides he gave him a camisa and an umbrella (see SOMBRERO). Clavijo, § lxxxix. ; Markham,
1464.to William and Richard my sons, all my fair camises.
Will of Richard Strode, of Newnham,
1498.That a very fine camysa, which in Portugal would be worth 300 reis, was given here
for 2 fanons, which in that country is the equivalent of 30 reis, though the value of 30 reis is in that
country no small matter.Roteiro de V. da Gama, 77.
1573.The richest of all (the shops in Fez) are
where they sell camisas.
Marmol. Desc. General de Affrica, Pt. I. Bk. iii. f. 87v.
CAMP, s. In the Madras Presidency [as well as in N. India] an official not at his headquarters is always
addressed as in Camp.
CAMPHOR, s. There are three camphors :
a. The Bornean and Sumatran camphor from Dryobalanops
b. The camphor of China and Japan, from Cinnamomum Camphora. (These are the two
chief camphors of commerce ; the first immensely exceeding the second in market value : see Marco
Polo, Bk. iii. ch. xi. Note 3.)
c. The camphor of Blumea balsamifera, D.C., produced and used in China
under the name of ngai camphor.
The relative ratios of value in the Canton market may be roundly given
as b, 1 ; c, 10 ; a, 80.
The first Western mention of this drug, as was pointed out by Messrs Hanbury
and Flückiger, occurs in the Greek medical writer Aëtius (see below), but it probably came through the
Arabs, as is indicated by the ph, or f of the Arab kafur, representing the Skt. karpura. It has been
suggested that the word was originally Javanese, in which language kapur appears to mean both lime
Moodeen Sheriff says that kafur is used (in Ind. Materia Medica) for amber. Tabashir
(see TABASHEER), is, according to the same writer, called bans-kafur bamboo-camphor ; and ras-
kafur (mercury-camphor) is an impure subchloride of mercury. According to the same authority, the
varieties of camphor now met with in the bazars of S. India are1. kafur-i-kaisuri, which is in Tamil
called pachchai (i.e. crude karuppuram ; 2. Surati kafur ; 3. chini ; 4. batai (from the Batta
country ?). The first of these names is a curious instance of the perpetuation of a blunder, originating
in the misreading of loose Arabic writing. The name is unquestionably fansuri, which carelessness as
to points has converted into kaisuri (as above, and in Blochmanns Ain, i. 79). The camphor alfansuri
is mentioned as early as by Avicenna, and by Marco Polo, and came from a place called Pansur in
Sumatra, perhaps the same as Barus, which has now long given its name to the costly Sumatran drug.
curious notion of Ibn Batutas (iv. 241) that the camphor of Sumatra (and Borneo) was produced in the
inside of a cane, filling the joints between knot and knot, may be explained by the statement of Barbosa
(p. 204), that the Borneo camphor as exported was packed in tubes of bamboo. This camphor is by
Barbosa and some other old writers called eatable camphor (da mangiare), because used in medicine
and with betel.
Our form of the word seems to have come from the Sp. alcanfor and canfora, through
the French camphre. Dozy points out that one Italian form retains the truer name cafura, and an old
German one (Mid. High Germ.) is gaffer (Oosterl. 47).
c. A.D. 540.Hygromyri cõfectio, olei salca lib. ij, opobalsami lib. i., spicænardi, folij singu. unc. iiii. carpobalsami,
arna bonis, amomi, ligni aloes, sing. unc. ij. mastichae, moschi, sing. scrup. vi. quod si etiã caphura
non deerit ex ea unc. ij adjicito.
Aetii Amideni, Librorum xvi. Tomi Dvo
Latinitate donati, Basil, MDXXXV.,
Liv. xvi. cap. cxx.
c. 940.These (islands called al-Ramin) abound in gold mines, and are near the
country of Kansur, famous for its camphor.
Masudi, i. 338. The same work at iii. 49, refers back