BAYADÈRE to BEADALA
BAYADÈRE, s. A Hindu dancing-girl. The word is especially used by French writers, from whom it has
been sometimes borrowed as if it were a genuine Indian word, particularly characteristic of the persons
in question. The word is in fact only a Gallicized form of the Portuguese bailadeira, from bailar, to
dance. Some 50 to 60 years ago there was a famous ballet called Le dieu et la bayadère, and under
this title Punch made one of the most famous hits of his early days by presenting a cartoon of Lord
Ellenborough as the Bayadère dancing before the idol of Somnath; [also see DANCING-GIRL].
1513.There also came to the ground many dancing women (molheres bailadeiras) with their instruments
of music, who make their living by that business, and these danced and sang all the time of the banquet
1526.XLVII. The dancers and danceresses (bayladores e bayladeiras) who come to
perform at a village shall first go and perform at the house of the principal man of the village (Gancar,
see GAUM).Foral de usos costumes dos Gancares e Lavradores de esta Itha de Goa, in Arch. Port.
Or., fascic. 5, 132.
1598.The heathenish whore called Balliadera, who is a dancer.Linschoten,
74; [Hak. Soc. i. 264].
1599.In hâc icone primum proponitur Inda Balliadera, id est saltatrix, quae
in publicis ludis aliisque solennitatibus saltando spectaculum exhibet.De Bry, Text to pl. xii. in vol.
ii. (also see p. 90, and vol. vii. 26), etc.
[c. 1676.All the Baladines of Gombroon were present to
dance in their own manner according to custom.Tavernier, ed. Ball, ii. 335.]
1782.Surate est renommé
par ses Bayadères, dont le véritable nom est Dérédassi: celui de Bayadères que nous leur donnons, vient
du mot Balladeiras, qui signifie en Portugais Danseuses.Sonnerat, i. 7.
1794.The name of Balliadere,
we never heard applied to the dancing girls; or saw but in Raynal, and War in Asia, by an Officer of
Colonel Baillies Detachment; it is a corrupt Portuguese word.Moors Narrative of Littles Detachment,
1825.This was the first specimen I had seen of the southern Bayadère, who differ considerably
from the nâch girls of northern India, being all in the service of different temples, for which they are purchased
young.Heber, ii. 180.
c. 1836.On one occasion a rumour reached London that a great success
had been achieved in Paris by the performance of a set of Hindoo dancers, called Les Bayadères, who
were supposed to be priestesses of a certain sect, and the London theatrical managers were at once
on the qui vive to secure the new attraction
My father had concluded the arrangement with the Bayadères
before his brother managers arrived in Paris. Shortly afterwards, the Hindoo priestesses appeared at
the Adelphi. They were utterly uninteresting, wholly unattractive. My father lost £2000 by the speculation; and
in the family they were known as the Buy-em-dears ever after.Edmund Yates, Recollections, i. 29,
BAYPARREE, BEOPARRY, s. H. bepärï, and byopärï (from Skt. vyäpärin); a trader, and especially a petty
trader or dealer.
A friend long engaged in business in Calcutta (Mr J. F. Ogilvy, of Gillanders & Co.) communicates
a letter from an intelligent Bengalee gentleman, illustrating the course of trade in country produce before
it reaches the hands of the European shipper:
the enhanced rates
do not practically benefit the producer in a marked, or even in a corresponding
degree; for the lions share goes into the pockets of certain intermediate classes, who are the growth
of the above system of business.
Following the course of trade as it flows into Calcutta, we find that
between the cultivators and the exporter these are: 1st. The Bepparree, or petty trader; 2nd. The Aurut-
dar;1 and 3rd. The Mahajun, interested in the Calcutta trade. As soon as the crops are cut, Bepparree
appears upon the scene; he visits village after village, and goes from homestead to homestead, buying
there, or at the village marts, from the ryots; he then takes his purchases to the Aurut-dar, who is stationed
at a centre of trade, and to whom he is perhaps under advances, and from the Aurut-dar the Calcutta
Mahajun obtains his supplies
for eventual despatch to the capital. There is also a fourth class of dealers
called Phoreas, who buy from the Mahajun and sell to the European exporter. Thus, between the cultivator
and the shipper there are so many middlemen, whose participation in the trade involves a multiplication
of profits, which goes a great way towards enhancing the price of commodities before they reach the
shippers hands.Letter from Baboo Nobokissin Ghose. [Similar details for Northern India will be found
in Hoey, Mon. Trade and Manufactures of Lucknow, 59 seqq.]
BAZAAR, s. H. &c. From P. bäzär, a permanent market or street of shops. The word has spread westward
into Arabic, Turkish, and, in special senses, into European languages, and eastward into India, where