GARDENS, GARDEN-HOUSE, s. In the 18th century suburban villas at Madras and Calcutta were so called. ‘Garden Reach’ below Fort William took its name from these.

1682.—“Early in the morning I was met by Mr. Littleton and most of the Factory, near Hugly, and about 9 or 10 o’clock by Mr. Vincent near the Dutch Garden, who came attended by several Boats and Budgerows guarded by 35 Firelocks, and about 50 Rashpoots and Peons well armed.”—Hedges, Diary, July 24; [Hak. Soc. i. 32].

1685.—“The whole Council…came to attend the President at the garden-house.…”—Pringle, Diary. Fort St. Geo. 1st ser. iv. 115; in Wheeler, i. 139.

1747.—“In case of an Attack at the Garden House, if by a superior Force they should be oblig’d to retire, according to the orders and send a Horseman before them to advise of the Approach.…”—Report of Council of War at Fort St. David, in India Office MS. Records.

1758.—“The guard of the redoubt retreated before them to the garden-house.”—Orme, ii. 303.

„ “Mahomed Isoof…rode with a party of horse as far as Maskelyne’s garden.”—Ibid. iii. 425.

1772.—“The place of my residence at present is a garden-house of the Nabob, about 4 miles distant from Moorshedabad.”—Teignmouth, Mem. i. 34.

1782.—“A body of Hyder’s horse were at St. Thomas’s Mount on the 29th ult. and Gen. Munro and Mr. Brodie with great difficulty escaped from the General’s Gardens. They were pursued by Hyder’s horse within a mile of the Black Town.”—India Gazette, May 11.

1809.—“The gentlemen of the settlement live entirely in their garden-houses, as they very properly call them.”—Ld. Valentia, i. 389.

1810.—“…Rural retreats called Garden-houses.”—Williamson, V. M. i. 137.

1873.—“To let, or for sale, Serle’s Gardens at Adyar.—For particulars apply,” &c.—Madras Mail, July 3.

GARRY, GHARRY, s. H. gari, a cart or carriage. The word is used by Anglo-Indians, at least on the Bengal side, in both senses. Frequently the species is discriminated by a distinctive prefix, as palkee- garry (palankin carriage), sej-garry (chaise), rel-garry (railway carriage), &c. [The modern dawk-garry was in its original form called the “Equirotal Carriage,” from the four wheels being of equal dimensions. The design is said to have been suggested by Lord Ellenborough. (See the account and drawing in Grant, Rural Life in Bengal, 3 seq.).]

1810.—“The common g’horry…is rarely, if ever, kept by any European, but may be seen plying for hire in various parts of Calcutta.”—Williamson, V. M. i. 329.

1811.—The Gary is represented in Solvyns’s engravings as a two-wheeled rath [see RUT] (i.e. the primitive native carriage, built like a light hackery) with two ponies.

1866.—“My husband was to have met us with a two-horse gharee.”—Trecelyan, Dawk Bungalow, 384:

[1892.—“The brum gari, brougham; the fitton gari, phaeton or barouche: the vagnit, waggonette, are now built in most large towns.…The vagnit seems likely to be the carriage of the future, because of its capacity.”—R. Kipling, Beast and Man in India, 193.]

GAUM, GONG, s. A village, H. gaon, from Skt. grama.

1519.—“In every one of the said villages, which they call guãoos.”—Goa Proclam., in Arch. Port. Orient., fase. 5, 38.

Gaonwar occurs in the same vol. (p. 75), under the forms gancare and guancare, for the village heads in Port. India.

GAURIAN, adj. This is a convenient name which has been adopted of late years as a generic name for the existing Aryan languages of India, i.e. those which are radically sprung from, or cognate to, the Sanskrit. The name (according to Mr. E. L. Brandreth) was given by Prof. Hoernle; but it is in fact an adoption and adaptation of a term used by the Pundits of Northern India. They divide the colloquial languages of (civilised) India into the 5 Gauras and 5 Draviras [see DRAVIDIAN]. The Gauras of the Pundits appear to be (1) Bengalee (Bangali) which is the proper language of Gauda, or Northern Bengal, from which the name is taken (see GOUR c. ), (2) Oriya, the language of Orissa, (3) Hindi, (4) Panjabi, (5) Sindhi; their Dravira la nguages are (1) Telinga, (2) Karnataka (Canarese), (3) Marathi, (4) Gurjara (Gujarati), (5) Dravira (Tamil). But of these last (3) and (4) are really to be classed with the Gaurian group, so that the latter is to be considered as embracing 7 principal languages. Kashmiri, Singhalese, and the languages or dialects of Assam, of Nepaul, and some others, have also been added to the list of this class.

The extraordinary analogies between the changes in grammar and phonology from Sanskrit in passing into those Gaurian languages, and the changes of Latin in passing into the

  By PanEris using Melati.

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