See quotation under BOMBAY MARINE.

1820.—“In former days a great many junks used to frequent Achin. This trade is now entirely at an end.”—Crawfurd, H. Ind. Arch. iii. 182.

ADAM’S APPLE. This name (Pomo d’Adamo) is given at Goa to the fruit of the Mimusops Elengi, Linn. (Bird-wood); and in the 1635 ed. of Gerarde’s Herball it is applied to the Plantain. But in earlier days it was applied to a fruit of the Citron kind.—(See Marco Polo, 2nd ed., i. 101), and the following:

c. 1580.—“In his hortis (of Cairo) ex arboribus virescunt mala citria, aurantia, limonia sylvestria et domestica poma Adami vocata.”—Prosp. Alpinus, i. 16.

c. 1712.—“It is a kind of lime or citron tree … it is called Pomum Adami, because it has on its rind the appearance of two bites, which the simplicity of the ancients imagined to be the vestiges of the impression which our forefather made upon the forbidden fruit.…” Bluteau, quoted by Tr. of Alboquerque, Hak. Soc. i. 100. The fruit has nothing to do with zamboa, with which Bluteau and Mr. Birch connect it. See JAMBOO.

ADATI, s. A kind of piece-goods exported from Bengal. We do not know the proper form or etymology. It may have been of half-width (from H. adha, ‘half’). [It may have been half the ordinary length, as the Salampore (Salempoory) was half the length of the cloth known in Madras as Punjum. (Madras Man. of Ad. iii. 799). Also see Yule’s note in Hedges’ Diary, ii. ccxl.]

1726.—“Casseri (probably Kasiári in Madnapur Dist.) supplies many Taffatshelas (Alleja, Shalee), Ginggangs, Allegias, and Adathays, which are mostly made there.”—Valentijn, v. 159.

1813.—Among piece-goods of Bengal: “Addaties, Pieces 700” (i.e. pieces to the ton).—Milburn, ii. 221.

ADAWLUT, s. Ar.—H.—’adalat, ‘a Court of Justice,’ from ’adl, ‘doing justice.’ Under the Mohammedan government there were 3 such courts, viz., NizamatAdalat, Diwani Adalat, and FaujdariAdalat, so-called from the respective titles of the officials who nominally presided over them. The first was the chief Criminal Court, the second a Civil Court, the third a kind of Police Court. In 1793 regular Courts were established under the British Government and then the Sudder Adawlut (Sadr ’Adalat) became the chief Court of Appeal for each Presidency, and its work was done by several European (Civilian) Judges. That Court was, on the criminal side, termed Nizamut Adawlat, and on the civil side Dewanny Ad. At Madras and Bombay, Foujdarry was the style adopted in lieu of Nizamut. This system ended in 1863, on the introduction of the Penal Code, and the institution of the High Courts on their present footing. (On the original history and constitution of the Courts see Fifth Report, 1812, p. 6.)

What follows applies only to the Bengal Presidency, and to the administration of justice under the Company’s Courts beyond the limits of the Presidency town. Brief particulars regarding the history of the Supreme Courts and those Courts which preceded them will be found under SUPREME COURT.

The grant, by Shah ’Alam, in 1765, of the Dewanny of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa to the Company, transferred all power, civil and military, in those provinces, to that body. But no immediate attempt was made to undertake the direct detailed administration of either revenue or justice by the agency of the European servants of the Company. Such superintendence, indeed, of the administration was maintained in the prior acquisitions of the Company—viz., in the Zemindary of Calcutta, in the Twenty-four Pergunnas, and in the Chucklas (Chucklah) or districts of Burdwan, Midnapoor, and Chittagong, which had been transferred by the Nawab, Kasim ’Ali Khan, in 1760; but in the rest of the territory it was confined to the agency of a Resident at the Moorshedabad Durbar, and of a ‘Chief’ at Patna. Justice was administered by the Mohammedan courts under the native officials of the Dewanny.

In 1770, European officers were appointed in the districts, under the name of Supervisors, with powers of control over the natives employed in the collection of the Revenue and the administration of justice, whilst local councils, with superior authority in all branches, were established at Moorshedabad and Patna. It was not till two years later that, under express orders from the Court of Directors, the effective administration of the provinces was undertaken by the agency of the Company’s covenanted servants. At this time (1772) Courts of Civil Justice (Mofussil Dewanny Adawlut) were established in each of the Districts then recognised. There were also District Criminal Courts (Foujdary Adawlut) held by Cazee or Mufty under the superintendence, like the Civil Court, of the Collectors, as the Supervisors were now styled; whilst Superior Courts (Sudder Dewanny, Sudder Nizamut Adawlut) were established at the Presidency, to be under the superintendence of three or four members of the Council of Fort William.


  By PanEris using Melati.

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