a note on the subject, too long for insertion in integrity, by one of much experience in Bengal—Sir G. U. Yule.

June, 1879.—“Natives who have expressed their views are, I believe, unanimous in ascribing the increase of drinking to our Abkaree system. I don’t say that this is putting the cart before the horse, but they are certainly too forgetful of the increased means in the country, which, if not the sole cause of the increased consumption, has been at least a very large factor in that result. I myself believe that more people drink now than formerly; but I knew one gentleman of very long and intimate knowledge of Bengal, who held that there was as much drinking in 1820 as in 1860.”

In any case exaggeration is abundant. All Sanskrit literature shows that tippling is no absolute novelty in India. [See the article on “Spirituous Drinks in Ancient India,” by Rajendralala Mitra, Indo-Aryans, i. 389 seqq.]

1790.—“In respect to Abkarry, or Tax on Spirituous Liquors, which is reserved for Taxation … it is evident that we cannot establish a general rate, since the quantity of consumption and expense of manufacture, etc., depends upon the vicinity of principal stations. For the amount leviable upon different Stills we must rely upon officers’ local knowledge. The public, indeed, cannot suffer, since, if a few stills are suppressed by over-taxation, drunkenness is diminished.”—In a Letter from Board of Revenue (Bengal) to Government, 12th July. MS. in India Office.

1797.—“The stamps are to have the words ‘Abcaree licenses’ inscribed in the Persian and Hindu languages and character.”—Bengal Regulations, x. 33.

ABIHÓWA. Properly P. ab-o-hawa, ‘water and air.’ The usual Hindustani expression for ‘climate.’

1786.—“What you write concerning the death of 500 Koorgs from small-pox is understood.… they must be kept where the climate [ab-o-hawa] may best agree with them.”—Tippoo’s Letters, 269.

ABYSSINIA, n.p. This geographical name is a 16-century Latinisation of the Arabic Habash, through the Portuguese Abex, bearing much the same pronunciation, minus the aspirate. [See HUBSHEE.]

[1598.—“The countrey of the Abexynes, at Prester John’s land.”—Linschoten, Hak. Soc. i. 38.

1617.—“He sent mee to buy three Abassines.”—Sir T. Roe, Travels, Hak. Soc. ii. 445.]

A.C. (i.e. ‘after compliments’). In official versions of native letters these letters stand for the omitted formalities of native compliments.

ACHÁNOCK, n.p. H. Chanak and Achanak. The name by which the station of Barrackpore is commonly known to Sepoys and other natives. Some have connected the name with that of Job Charnock, or, as A. Hamilton calls him, Channock, the founder of Calcutta, and the quotations render this probable. Formerly the Cantonment of Secrole at Benares was also known, by a transfer no doubt, as Chhota (or ‘Little’) Achanak. Two additional remarks may be relevantly made: (1) Job’s name was certainly Charnock, and not Channock. It is distinctly signed “Job Charnock,” in a MS. letter from the factory at “Chutta,” i.e. Chuttanuttee (or Calcutta) in the India Office records, which I have seen. (2) The map in Valentijn which shows the village of Tsjannok, though published in 1726, was apparently compiled by Van der Broecke in 1662. Hence it is not probable that it took its name from Job Charnock, who seems to have entered the Company’s service in 1658. When he went to Bengal we have not been able to ascertain. [See Diary of Hedges, edited by Sir H. Yule, ii., xcix. In some “Documentary Memoirs of Job Charnock,” which form part of vol. lxxv. (1888) of the Hakluyt Soc., Job is said to have “arrived in India in 1655 or 1656.”]

1677.—“The ship Falcone to go up the river to Hughly, or at least to Channock.” —Court’s Letter to Ft. St. Geo. of 12th December. In Notes and Extracts, Madras, 1871, No. 1., p. 21; see also p. 23.

1711.—“Chanock- Reach hath two shoals, the upper one in Chanock, and the lower one on the opposite side.… you must from below Degon as aforesaid, keep the starboard shore aboard until you come up with a Lime-Tree.… and then steer over with Chanock Trees and house between the two shoals, until you come mid-river, but no nearer the house.”—The English Pilot, 55.

1726.—“’t stedeken Tsjannock.”—Valentijn, v. 153. In Val.’s map of Bengal also, we find opposite to Oegli (Hoogly), Tsjannok, and then Collecatte, and Calcula.

1758.—“Notwithstanding these solemn assurances from the Dutch it was judged

  By PanEris using Melati.

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