1. A revolving frame in a footpath, preventing the passage of horses or cattle, but admitting that of persons; a
turnpike. See Turnpike, n., 1.
2. A similar arrangement for registering the number of persons passing through a gateway, doorway, or
Black turnstone, the California turnstone The adult in summer is mostly black, except some white
streaks on the chest and forehead, and two white loral spots.
(Turn"stone`) n. (Zoöl.) Any species of limicoline birds of the genera Strepsilas and Arenaria,
allied to the plovers, especially the common American and European species They are so called from
their habit of turning up small stones in search of mollusks and other aquatic animals. Called also brant
bird, sand runner, sea quail, sea lark, sparkback, and skirlcrake.
(Turn"ta`ble) n. A large revolving platform, for turning railroad cars, locomotives, etc., in a
different direction; called also turnplate.
(||Tur"nus) n. [NL., fr. L. Turnus, the king of the Rutuli, mentioned in the Æneid.] (Zoöl.) A common,
large, handsome, American swallowtail butterfly, now regarded as one of the forms of Papilio, or Jasoniades,
glaucus. The wings are yellow, margined and barred with black, and with an orange-red spot near the
posterior angle of the hind wings. Called also tiger swallowtail. See Illust. under Swallowtail.
(||Turn"ve*rein`) n. [G., from turnen to exercise + verein a union.] A company or association
of gymnasts and athletes.
(Turn"wrest`) n. (a) Designating a cumbersome style of plow used in England, esp. in Kent.
(b) designating a kind of hillside plow. [Eng.] Knight.
(Tu*ro"ni*an) n. (Geol.) One of the subdivisions into which the Upper Cretaceous formation
of Europe is divided.
(Tur"pen*tine), n. [F. térébentine, OF. also turbentine; cf. Pr. terebentina, terbentina, It. terebentina,
trementina; fr. L. terebinthinus of the turpentine tree, from terebinthus the turpentine tree. Gr. . See
Terebinth.] A semifluid or fluid oleoresin, primarily the exudation of the terebinth, or turpentine, tree
(Pistacia Terebinthus), a native of the Mediterranean region. It is also obtained from many coniferous
trees, especially species of pine, larch, and fir.
There are many varieties of turpentine. Chian turpentine is produced in small quantities by the turpentine
tree (Pistacia Terebinthus). Venice, Swiss, or larch turpentine, is obtained from Larix Europæa. It is a
clear, colorless balsam, having a tendency to solidify. Canada turpentine, or Canada balsam, is the
purest of all the pine turpentines The Carpathian and Hungarian varieties are derived from Pinus Cembra
and Pinus Mugho. Carolina turpentine, the most abundant kind, comes from the long-leaved pine Strasburg
turpentine is from the silver fir
Oil of turpentine (Chem.), a colorless oily hydrocarbon, C10H16, of a pleasant aromatic odor, obtained
by the distillation of crude turpentine. It is used in making varnishes, in medicine, etc. It is the type
of the terpenes and is related to cymene. Called also terebenthene, terpene, etc. Turpentine
moth (Zoöl.), any one of several species of small tortricid moths whose larvæ eat the tender shoots of
pine and fir trees, causing an exudation of pitch or resin. Turpentine tree (Bot.), the terebinth tree,
the original source of turpentine. See Turpentine, above.
(Tur"peth) n. [NL. turpethum, fr. Per. tirbid a cathartic, turbad a purgative root. Cf. Turbith.]
[Written also turbeth, and turbith.]