1. (Bot.) A genus of herbaceous plants (Tribulus) of the order Zygophylleæ, having a hard several- celled
fruit, armed with stout spines, and resembling the military instrument of the same name. The species
grow in warm countries, and are often very annoying to cattle.
2. (Mil.) An instrument with four iron points, so disposed that, any three of them being on the ground,
the other projects upward. They are scattered on the ground where an enemy's cavalry are to pass, to
impede their progress by endangering the horses' feet.
American calumba, the Frasera Carolinensis, also called American gentian. Its root has been used
in medicine as bitter tonic in place of calumba.
(Ca*lum"ba) n. [from kalumb, its native name in Mozambique.] (Med.) The root of a plant
(Jateorrhiza Calumba, and probably Cocculus palmatus), indigenous in Mozambique. It has an unpleasantly
bitter taste, and is used as a tonic and antiseptic. [Written also colombo, columbo, and calombo.]
(Ca*lum"bin) n. (Chem.) A bitter principle extracted as a white crystalline substance from
the calumba root. [Written also colombin, and columbin]
(Cal"u*met) n. [F. calumet, fr. L. calamus reed. See Halm, and cf. Shawm.] A kind of
pipe, used by the North American Indians for smoking tobacco. The bowl is usually made of soft red
stone, and the tube is a long reed often ornamented with feathers.
Smoked the calumet, the Peace pipe,
As a signal to the nations.
The calumet is used as a symbol of peace. To accept the calumet is to agree to terms of peace, and
to refuse it is to reject them. The calumet of peace is used to seal or ratify contracts and alliances, and
as an evidence to strangers that they are welcome.
(Ca*lum"ni*ate) v. i. [imp. & p. p. Calumniated; p. pr. & vb. n. calumniating.] [L. calumniatus,
p. p. of calumniari. See Calumny, and cf. Challenge, v. t.] To accuse falsely and maliciously of a
crime or offense, or of something disreputable; to slander; to libel.
Hatred unto the truth did always falsely report and calumniate all godly men's doings. Syn. To asperse; slander; defame; vilify; traduce; belie; bespatter; blacken; libel. See Asperse.
(Ca*lum"ni*ate), v. i. To propagate evil reports with a design to injure the reputation of
another; to make purposely false charges of some offense or crime.
(Ca*lum`ni*a"tion) n. False accusation of crime or offense, or a malicious and false representation
of the words or actions of another, with a view to injure his good name.
The calumniation of her principal counselors.
(Ca*lum`ni*a"tor) n. [L.] One who calumniates.
Syn. Slanderer; defamer; libeler; traducer.
(Ca*lum"ni*a*to*ry) a. Containing calumny; slanderous. Montagu.
(Ca*lum"ni*ous) a. [L. calumniosus.] Containing or implying calumny; false, malicious,
and injurious to reputation; slanderous; as, calumnious reports.
Virtue itself 'scapes not calumnious strokes.
. Slanderous; defamatory; scurrilous; opprobrious; derogatory; libelous; abusive.