Vindicate to Virgil

Vindicate (3 syl.), to justify, to avenge, has a remarkable etymon. Vindicius was a slave of the Vitelli, who informed the Senate of the conspiracy of the sons of Junius Brutus to restore Tarquin, for which service he was rewarded with liberty (Livy, ii. 5); hence the rod with which a slave was struck in manumission was called vindicta, a Vindicius rod (See Manumit ; and to set free was in Latin vindicare in libertatem. One way of settling disputes was to give the litigants two rods, which they crossed as if in fight, and the person whom the praetor vindicated broke the rod of his opponent. These rods were called vindiciae, and hence vindicate, meaning to “justify.” To avenge is simply to justify oneself by punishing the wrongdoer.

Vine (1 syl.). The Rabbins say that the fiend buried a lion, a lamb, and a hog at the foot of the first vine planted by Noah; and that hence men receive from wine ferocity, mildness, or wallowing in the mire. (See Midrash. )

Vinegar (Hannibal's). Livy tells us that when Hannibal led his army over the Alps to enter Rome he used vinegar to dissolve the snow, and make the march less slippery. Of course this tradition is fabulous. Where did the vinegar come from? Nepos has left a short memoir of Hannibal, but says nothing about the vinegar. (Livy, B.C. 59 to A.D. 17; Nepos about the same time; Hannibal, B.C. 247-183.)

Vinegar Bible Printed at the Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1717. So called because it has the word vinegar instead of vineyard in the running head-line of Luke xxii.

Vineyard Controversy A paper war provoked by the Hon. Daines Barrington, who entered the lists to overthrow all chroniclers and antiquaries from William of Malmesbury to Samuel Pegge, respecting the vineyards of Domesday Book. He maintained that the vines were currants, and the vineyards currant- gardens.

Vino In vino veritas. In wine is truth, meaning when persons are more or less intoxicated they utter many things they would at other times conceal or disguise. (Latin.)

Vintry Ward (London). So called from the Vintry, or part occupied by the Vintners or wine-merchants from Bordeaux, who anciently settled on this part of the Thames' bank. They landed their wines here, and, till the 28th Edw. I., were obliged to sell what they landed within forty days.

Vinum Theologicum The best wine in the nation. Holinshed says it was so called because religious men would be sure “neither to drinke nor be served of the worst, or such as was anie waies vined by the vintner; naie, the merchant would have thought that his soule would have gone streightwaie to the devil if he would have served them with other than the best.” (i. 282.)

Violet said to have sprung from the blood of Ajax; but how the blood of the mad boaster could produce this modest flower is past understanding. (Latin, viola; Greek, .)

“As when stern Ajax poured a purple flood,
The violet rose, fair daughter of his blood.”
Dr. Young: The Instalment.
   Chemical test paper is steeped in syrup of violets; used to detect acids and alkalis. If an acid is present, it will change the violet paper into red, an alkali will turn the paper green. Slips of white paper stained with the juice of violets (kept from the air) will serve the same purpose. Litmus and turmeric are also used for similar purposes. The paper should be unsized.

Violet The colour indicates the love of truth and the truth of love. Pugin says it is used for black in mourning and fasting.
   The violet on the tyrant's grave. (Tennyson: Aylmer's Field.) The reference is to Nero's grave. It is said that some unknown hand went by night and strewed violets over his grave Even Nero had one who loved him. Lemprièe states that the statues of Nero, at death, “were crowned with garlands of flowers.”
   “I would give you some violets, but they withered all when my father died.” So says Ophelia to the Queen. The violet in flower-language is emblematical of innocence, and Ophelia says tho King, the Queen, and even Hamlet himself now he has killed Polonius, are unworthy of this symbol. Now my father is dead all the violets are withered, all the court family are stained with blood-guiltiness.
   This entire posy may be thus paraphrased: Both you and I are under a spell, and there is “herb of grace” to

  By PanEris using Melati.

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