Sawny to Scapegoat

Sawny or Sandy. A Scotchman; a contraction of “Alexander.”

Saxifrage So called because its tender rootlets will penetrate the hardest rock, and break it up.

Saxon Castles
   Alnwick Castle, given to Ivo de Vesey by the Conqueror.
   Bamborough Castle (Northumberland), the palace of the kings of Northumberland, and built by King Ida, who began to reign 559; now converted into charity schools and signal-stations.
   Carisbrook Castle, enlarged by Fitz-Osborne, five centuries later.
   Conisborough Castle (York).
   Goodrich Castle (Herefordshire).
   Kenilworth Castle, built by Kenelm, King of Mercia. Kenilworth means Kenhelm's dwelling.
   Richmond Castle (York), belonging to the Saxon earl Edwin, given by the Conqueror to his nephew Alan, Earl of Bretagne; a ruin for three centuries. The keep remains.
   Rochester Castle, given to Odo, natural brother of the Conqueror.

Saxon Characteristics (architectural).
   (1) The quoining consists of a long stone set at the corner, and a short one lying on it and bonding into the wall.
   (2) The use of large heavy blocks of stone in some parts, while the rest is built of Roman bricks.
   (3) An arch with straight sides to the upper part instead of curves.
   (4) The absence of buttresses.
   (5) The use in windows of rude balusters.
   (6) A rude round staircase west of the tower, for the purpose of access to the upper floors.
   (7) Rude carvings in imitation of Roman work. (Rickman.)

Saxon Duke (in Hudibras). John Frederick, Duke of Saxony, a very corpulent man. When taken prisoner, Charles V. said, “I have gone hunting many a time, but never saw I such a swine before.”

Saxon English The “Lord's Prayer” is almost all of it Anglo-Saxon. The words trespasses, trespass, and temptation are of Latin origin. The substitution of “debts” and “debtors” (as “forgive us our debts as we forgive our debtors”) is objectionable. Perhaps “Forgive us our wrongdoings, as we forgive them who do wrong to us” would be less objectionable. The latter clause, “lead us not into temptation,” is far more difficult to convert into Anglo-Saxon. The best suggestion I can think of is “lead us not in the ways of sinners,” but the real meaning is “put us not to the test.” We have the word assay (Assay us not), which would be an excellent translation, but the word is not a familiar one.

Saxon Relics
   The church of Earl's Barton (Northamptonshire). The tower and west doorway.
   The church of St. Michael's (St. Albans), erected by the Abbot of St. Albans in 948.
   The tower of Bosham church (Sussex)
   The east side of the dark and principal cloisters of Westminster Abbey, from the college dormitory on the south to the chapter-house on the north. Edward the Confessor's chapel in Westminster Abbey, now used as the Pix office.
   The church of Darenth (Kent) contains some windows of manifest Saxon architecture.
   With many others, some of which are rather doubtful.

Saxon Shore The coast of Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Kent, Sussex, and Hampshire, where were castles and garrisons, under the charge of a count or military officer, called Comës Lïttoris Saxonici per Britanniam.
   Fort Branodunum (Brancaster) was on the Norfolk coast.
   Gariannonum (Burgh) was on the Suffolk coast.
   Othona (Ithanchester) was on the Essex coast.
   Regulbium (Reculver), Rutupiae (Richborough), Dubris (Dover), P. Lemanis (Lyme), were on the Kentish coast.
   Anderida (Hastings or Pevensey), Portus
   Adurni (Worthing), were on the Sussex coast.

Say To take the say. To taste meat or wine before it is presented, in order to prove that it is not poisoned. The phrase was common in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.

“Nor deem it meet that you to him convey
The proffered bowl, unless you taste the say”
Rose: Orlando Furioso, xxi. 61.

Sbirri (Italian). A police-force which existed in the pope's dominions. They were domiciled in private houses.

“He points them out to his sbirri and armed ruffians." The Daily Telegraph.

  By PanEris using Melati.

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