Jane Eyre to Jeames

Jane Eyre The heroine in a novel of the same name, by Currer Bell (q.v.).

Janissaries or Janizaries, a celebrated militia of the Ottoman Empire, raised by Orchan in 1326, and called the Yengi-tscheri (new corps). It was blessed by Hadji Bektash, a saint, who cut off a sleeve of his fur mantle and gave it to the captain. The captain put the sleeve on his head, and from this circumstance arose the fur cap worn by these foot-guards. In 1826, having become too formidable to the state, they were abolished.

"There were two classes of Janizaries, one regularly organised ... and the other composing an irregular militia.' - Chambers: Encyclopædia, vol. vi. p. 279.
Jannes and Jambres. The two magicians of Pharaoh, who imitated some of the miracles of Moses. The Jannes and Jambres who "withstood Moses," mentioned by St. Paul (2 Tim. iii. 8, 9), are supposed to be the same. The paraphrast Jonathan says they were the sons of Balaam.

Jansenists A sect of Christians, who held the doctrines of Cornelius Jansen, Bishop of Ypres, in France. Jansen professed to have formulated the teaching of Augustine, A.D. 1640, which resembled Calvinism in many respects. He taught the doctrines of "irresistible grace," "original sin," and the "utter helplessness of the natural man to turn to God." Louis XIV. took part against them, and they were put down by Pope Clement XI., in 1705, in the famous bull called Unigenitus (q.v.).

Januarius (St.). A martyr in 305. Two vials of his blood are preserved in the cathedral at Naples, and every year on September 19 (the day of his martyrdom) the blood liquefies.
   Order of St. Januarius (patron saint of Naples), instituted in 1738 by Infante don Carlos.

January The month dedicated by the Romans to Janus (q.v.). Janus had two faces, and January could look back to the year past, and forwards to the current year.

Janus The temple of peace, in Rome. The doors were thrown open in times of war and closed in times of peace. Some think the two faces of this mythical deity allegorise Noah and his sons, who look back on the world before the Flood, and forwards on the world after the deluge had abated. This idea will do very well in poetry.

"Slavery was the hinge on which the gates of the temple of Janus turned" (in the American war). - The Times.
Japanese (3 syl.). The language of Japan, a native of Japan, anything pertaining thereto.

Japheth's Stone According to tradition, Noah gave Japheth a stone which the Turks call giudëtasch and senkjedë. Whoever possesses this stone has the power of bringing rain from heaven at will. It was for a long time preserved by the Moguls.

Japhetidie The supposed posterity of Japheth, son of Noah. The Aryan family is said to belong to this race.

"The Indo-European family of languages as known by various designations. Some style it Japhetic, as if it appertained to the descendants of the patriarch Japheth; as the Semitic tongues [appertain] to the descendants of Shem." - Whitney: Languages, etc., lecture v. p. 192.
Jaquemart The automaton of a clock, consisting of a man and woman who strike the hours on a bell. So called from Jean Jaquemart of Dijon, a clock maker, who devised this piece of mechanism.

Jacques (1 syl.). A morose cynical moraliser in Shakespeare's As You Like It. It is much disputed whether the word is a monosyllable or not. Charles Lamb makes it a dissyllable - "Where Jaquës fed in solitary vein;" but Sir Walter Scott uses it as a monosyllable - "Whom humorous Jacques with envy viewed."

Jarkman An Abram-man (q.v.). Jark means a seal, whence also a safe-conduct. Abram-men were licensed beggars, who had the "seal" or licence of the Bethlehem Hospital to beg.

  By PanEris using Melati.

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