Pre-Adamite Kings to Prester John

Pre-Adamite Kings, Soliman Raad, Soliman Daki, and Soliman di Gian ben Gian. The last-named, having chained up the dives (I syl.) in the dark caverns of Kâf, became so presumptuous as to dispute the Supreme Power. All these kings maintained great state [before the existence of that contemptible being denominated by us “the father of mankind”]; but none can be compared with the eminence of Soliman ben Daoud.

Pre-Adamite Throne (The). It was Vathek’s ambition to gain the pre-Adamite throne. After long search, he was shown it at last in the abyss of Eblis; but, being there, return was impossible, and he remained a prisoner without hope for ever.

They reached at length the hall [Argenk] of great extent, and covered with a lofty dome.… A funereal gloom prevailed over it. Here, upon two beds of incorruptible cedar, lay recumbent the fleshless forms of the pre-Adamite kings, who had once been monarchs of the whole earth.… At their feet were inscribed the events of their several reigns, their power, their pride, and their crimes. [This was the pre-Adamite throne, the ambition of the caliph Vathek.]—Beckford: Vathek (1784).

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (The). In 1850 or thereabouts a circle of young men, inspired by Ford Madox Brown, and led by Dante Gabriel Rossetti (artists), determined to band themselves together, and made the following resolution, to use the words of Ruskin: “That as far as in them lies, they will draw either what they see, or what they suppose might have been the actual facts of the scene they desire to represent, irrespective of any conventional rules of picture-making.” They chose their name “because all artists did this before Raphael’s time, and after Raphael’s time did not this, but sought to paint fair pictures rather than represent stern facts” (Arrows of the Chace, p. 89). Amongst the Pre-Raphaelites were Woolner, Holman Hunt, Millais, Collins, John Lewis, etc. In 1850 a short-lived periodical called the Germ appeared under the editorship of William Michael Rossetti, brother of the artist, in which the virtues and failings of the Pre-Raphaelite school were displayed. In 1854 Holman Hunt exhibited his picture “The Light of the World,” and Ruskin wrote a letter to the Times (May 5, 1854) respecting this, “the principal Pre-Raphaelite picture in the Royal Academy this year.” He describes how he stood by the picture for one hour, watching the passers-by: “few stopped to look, and those who did almost invariably with some contemptuous expression, founded on what appeared to them the absurdity of representing the Saviour with a lantern in His hand”(Arrows of the Chace, p. 98). The whole description of the picture is worth a careful study, and is interesting to look back upon to-day, when we remember that the engraving or photograph of Holman Hunt’s “Light of the World” is to be found treasured in many homes.

Burne-Jones, although not one of the Pre-Raphaelites, has been decidedly influenced by their teaching.

Preacher (The), Solomon, the son of David, author of The Preacher (i.e. Ecclesiastes).

Thus said the Preacher, “Nought beneath the sun
Is new;” yet still from change to change we run.

The Glorious Preacher, St. Chrys’ostom (347-407). The name means “Golden Mouth.”

The Little Preacher, Samuel de Marets, protestant controversialist (1599–1663).

The Unfair Preacher. Dr. Isaac Barrow was so called by Charles II., because his sermons were so exhaustive that they left nothing more to be said on the subject, which was “unfair” to those who came after him.

Preachers (The king of), Louis Bourdaloue (1632–1704).

Précieuses Ridicules (Les), a comedy by Molière, in ridicule of the “précieuses,” as they were styled, forming the coterie of the Hôtel de Rambouillet in the seventeenth century. The soirées held in this hotel were a great improvement on the licentious assemblies of the period; but many imitators made the thing ridiculous, because they lacked the same presiding talent and good taste (1659). (For the rest, see Cathos, p, 188.)

  By PanEris using Melati.

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