VERDURE to VIZIER
1752.Among minor items of revenue from duties in Calcutta we find:
[1749. as well as vargems lands as hortas (see OART).Treaty, in Logan, Malabar, iii. 48.
1800.Europeans cool their apartments by means of wetted tats (see TATTY) made of straw or grass, and sometimes of the roots of the wattie waeroo, which, when wetted, exhales a pleasant but faint smell. Heynes Tracts, p. 11.
VIDANA, s. In Ceylon, the title of a village head man. The person who conveys the orders of Government
to the people (Clough, s.v. vidán). It is apparently from the Skt. vadana,
the act of speaking
mouth, face, countenance
the front, point, &c. In Javanese wadana (or wadono, in Jav pronunciation)
is the face, front, van; a chief of high rank: a Javanese title (Crawfurd, s.v.). The Javanese title is, we
imagine, now only traditional; the Ceylonese one has followed the usual downward track of high titles; we
can hardly doubt the common Sanskrit origin of both (see Athenaeum, April 1, 1882, p. 413, and May
13, ibid. p. 602). The derivation given by Alwis is probably not inconsistent with this. 1681.The
Dissauvas (see DISSAVE) by these Courli vidani their officers do oppress and squeez the people,
by laying Mulcts upon them.
In Fine this officer is the Dissauvas chief Substitute, who orders and
manages all affairs incumbent upon his master.Knox, 51.
VIHARA, WIHARE, &c., s. In Ceylon a Buddhist temple. Skt. vihara, a Buddhist convent, originally the hall where the monks met, and thence extended to the buildings generally of such an institution, and to the shrine which was attached to them, much as minster has come from monasterium. Though there are now no Buddhist viharas in India Proper, the former wide diffusion of such establishments has left its trace in the names of many noted places: e.g. Bihar, and the great province which takes its name; Kuch Behar; the Vihar water-works at Bombay; and most probably the City of Bokhara itself. [Numerous ruins of such buildings have been unearthed in N. India. as, for instance, that at Sarnath near Benares, of which an account is given by Gen. Cunningham Arch. Rep. i. 121). An early use of the word (probably in the sense of a monastery) is found in the Mathura Jain inscription of the 2nd century, A.D. in the reign of Huvishka (ibid. iii. 33).]
1681.The first and highest order of priests are the Tirinanxes1, who are the priests of the Buddou God. Their temples are styled Vehars. These only live in the Vihar, and enjoy great Revenues. Knox, Ceylon, 74.
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