[VACCA, VAKEA-NEVIS, s. Ar. wakia’h, ‘an event, news’: waki’ahnavis, ‘a news-writer.’ These among the Moghuls were a sort of registrars or remembrancers. Later they became spies who were sent into the provinces to supply information to the central Government.

[c. 1590.—“Regulations regarding the Waqi’ahnawís. Keeping records is an excellent thing for a government. … His Majesty has appointed fourteen zealous, experienced, and impartial clerks. …”—Ain, i. 258.

[c. 1662.—“It is true that the Great Mogul sends a Vakea-nevis to the various provinces; that is persons whose business it is to communicate every event that takes place.”—Bernier, ed. Constable, 231.

[1673.—“… Peta Gi Pundit Vocanovice, or Publick Intelligencer. …”—Fryer, 80.

[1687.—“Nothing appearing in the Vacca or any other Letters untill of late concerning these broils.”—In Yule, Hedges’ Diary, II. lxiii.]

VACCINATION. Vaccine was first imported into Bombay viâ Bussora in 1802. “Since then,” says R. Drummond, “the British Governments in Asia have taken great pains to preserve and diffuse this mild instrument of salvation.” [Also see Forbes, Or. Mem. 2nd ed. ii. 374.]

VAISHNAVA, adj. Relating to Vishnu; applied to the sectaries who especially worship him. In Bengali the term is converted into Boishnab.

1672.—“… also some hold Wistnou for the supreme god, and therefore are termed Wistnouwaes.”—Baldaeus.

[1815.—“Many choose Vishnoo for their guardian deity. These persons are called Voishnuvus.”—Ward, Hindoos, 2nd ed. ii. 13.

VAKEEL, s. An attorney; an authorised representative. Arab. wakil.

[c. 1630.—“A Scribe, Vikeel.”—Persian Gloss. in Sir T. Herbert, ed. 1677, p. 316.]

1682.—“If Mr. Charnock had taken the paines to present these 2 Perwannas (Purwanna) himself, ’tis probable, with a small present, he might have prevailed with Bulchund to have our goods freed. However, at this rate any pitifull Vekeel is as good to act ye Company’s Service as himself.”— Hedges, Diary, Dec. 7; [Hak. Soc. i. 54].

[1683.—“… a copy whereof your Vackel James Price brought you from Dacca.”—In Yule, ibid. II. xxiii.]

1691.—“November the 1st, arriv’d a Pattamar or Courrier, from our Fakeel, or Sollicitor at Court. …”—Orington, 415.

1811.—“The Raja has sent two Vakeels or ambassadors to meet me here. …”— Ld. Minto in India, 268.

c. 1847.—“If we go into Court I suppose I must employ a Vehicle.”—Letter from an European subordinate to one of the present writers.

VARELLA, s. This is a term constantly applied by the old Portuguese writers to the pagodas of Indo- China and China. Of its origin we have no positive evidence. The most probable etymology is that it is the Malay barahla or brahla, [in Wilkinson’s Dict. berhala], ‘an idol.’ An idol temple is rumah-barahla, ‘a house of idols,’ but barahla alone may have been used elliptically by the Malays or misunderstood by the Portuguese. We have an analogy in the double use of pagoda for temple and idol.

1555.—“Their temples are very large edifices, richly wrought, which they call Valeras, and which cost a great deal.…” —Account of China in a Jesuit’s Letter appended to Fr. Alvarez H. of Ethiopia, translated by Mr. Major in his Introd. to Mendoza, Hak. Soc. I. xlviii.

1569.—“Gran quantità se ne consuma ancora in quel Regno nelle lor Varelle, che sono gli suo’ pagodi, de’ quali ve n’è gran quantità di grandi e di piccioie, e sono alcune montagnuole fatte a mano, a giusa d’vn pan di zuccaro, el alcune d’esse alte quanti il campanile di S. Marco di Venetia … si consuma in queste istesse varelle anco gran quantità di oro di foglia. …”— Ces. federici, in Ramusio, iii. 395; [in Hakl. ii. 368.]

1583.—“… nauigammo fin la mattina, che ci trouammo alla Bara giusto di Negrais, che cosi si chiama in lor linguaggio il porto, che va in Pegu, oue discoprimmo a banda sinistra del riuo vn pagodo, ouer varella tutta dorata, la quale si scopre di lontano da’ vascelli, che vengono d’alto mare, et massime quando il Sol percote in quell’ oro, che la fà risplendere all’ intorno. …”—Gasparo Balbi, f. 92.1

1587.—“They consume in these Varellaes great quantitie of Golde; for that they be all gilded aloft.”—Fitch, in Hakl. ii. 393; [and see quotation from same under DAGON].

1614.—“So also they have many Varelas, which are monasteries in which dwell their religiosos, and some of these are very sumptuous, with their roofs and pinnacles all gilded.”—Couto, VI. vii. 9.

More than one prominent geographical feature on the coast-navigation to China was known

  By PanEris using Melati.

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