TOPE-KHANA, s. The Artillery, Artillery Park, or Ordnance Department, Turco-Pers. top-khana, ‘cannon- house’ or ‘cannon-department.’ The word is the same that appears so often in reports from Constantinople as the Tophaneh. Unless the traditions of Donna Tofana are historical, we are strongly disposed to suspect that Aqua Tofana may have had its name from this word.

1687.—“The Toptchi. These are Gunners, called so from the word Tope, which in Turkish signifies a Cannon, and are in number about 1200, distributed in 52 Chambers; their Quarters are at Tophana, or the place of Guns in the Suburbs of Constantinople.”—Rycaut’s Present State of the Ottoman Empire, p. 94.

1726.—“Isfandar Chan, chief of the Artillery (called the Daroger (see DAROGA) of the Topscanna).”—Valentijn, iv. (Suratte), 276.

1765.—“He and his troops knew that by the treachery of the Tope Khonnah Droger (see DAROGA), the cannon were loaded with powder only.”—Holwell, Hist. Events, &c. i. 96.

TOPEE, s. A hat, Hind. topi. This is sometimes referred to Port. topo, ‘the top’ (also tope, ‘a top- knot,’ and topete, a ‘toupee’), which is probably identical with English and Dutch top, L. German topp, Fr. topet, &c. But there is also a simpler Hind. word top, for a helmet or hat, and the quotation from the Roteiro Vocabulary seems to show that the word existed in India when the Portuguese first arrived. With the usual tendency to specialize foreign words, we find this word becomes specialized in application to the sola hat.

1498.—In the vocabulary (“Este he a linguajem de Calicut”) we have: “barrete (i.e. a cap): tupy.”—Roteiro, 118.

The following expression again, in the same work, seems to be Portuguese, and to refer to some mode in which the women’s hair was dressed: “Trazem em a moleera huuns topetes por signall que sam Christãos.”—Ibid. 52.

1849.—“Our good friend Sol came down in right earnest on the waste, and there is need of many a fold of twisted muslin round the white topi, to keep off his importunacy.”—Dry Leaves from Young Egypt, 2.

1883.—“Topee, a solar helmet.”—Wills, Modern Persia, 263.

TOPEEWALA, s. Hind. topiwala, ‘one who wears a hat,’ generally a European, or one claiming to be so. Formerly by Englishmen it was habitually applied to the dark descendants of the Portuguese. R. Drummond says that in his time (before 1808) Topeewala and Puggrywala were used in Guzerat and the Mahratta country for ‘Europeans’ and ‘natives.’ [The S. Indian form is Toppikar.] The author of the Persian Life of Hydur Naik (Or. Tr. Fund, by Miles) calls Europeans Kalah-posh, i.e. ‘hat-wearers’ (p. 85).

1803.—“The descendants of the Portuguese…unfortunately the ideas of Christianity are so imperfect that the only mode they hit upon of displaying their faith is by wearing hats and breeches.”—Sydney Smith, Works, 3d. ed. iii. 5.

[1826.—“It was now evident we should have to encounter the Topee Wallas.”—Pandurang Hari, ed. 1873, i. 71.]

1874.—“…you will see that he will not be able to protect us. All topiwálás …are brothers to each other. The magistrates and the judge will always decide in favour of their white brethren.”—Govinda Samanta, ii. 211.

TORCULL, s. This word occurs only in Castanheda. It is the Malayalam tiru-koyil, [Tam. tiru, Skt. sri, ‘holy’ koyil, ‘temple’]. See i. 253, 254; also the English Trans. of 1582, f. 151. In fact, in the 1st ed. of the 1st book of Castanheda turcoll occurs where pagode is found in subsequent editions. [Tricalore in S. Arcot is in Tam. Tirukkoyilur, with the same meaning.]

TOSHACONNA, s. P.—H. tosha-khana. The repository of articles received as presents, or intended to be given as presents, attached to a government-office, or great man’s establishment. The tosha-khana is a special department attached to the Foreign Secretariat of the Government of India.

[1616.—“Now indeed the atashckannoe was become a right stage.”—Sir T. Roe, Hak. Soc. ii. 300.]

[1742.—“…the Treasury, Jewels, toishik-khanna…that belonged to the Emperor.…”—Fraser, H. of Nadir Shah, 173.]

1799.—“After the capture of Seringapatam, and before the country was given over to the Raja, some brass swamies (q.v.), which were in the toshekanah were given to the brahmins of different pagodas, by order of Macleod and the General. The prize-agents require payment for them.”—Wellington, i. 56.

[1885.—“When money is presented to the Viceroy, he always ‘remits’ it, but when presents of jewels, arms, stuffs,

  By PanEris using Melati.

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