SHAMA to SHAMBOGUE
SHAMA, s. Hind. shama [Skt. syama, black, dark-coloured.] A favorite song-bird and cage-bird, Kitta cincla macrura, Gmel. In confinement it imitates the notes of other birds, and of various animals, with ease and accuracy(Jerdon). The long tail seems to indicate the identity of this bird rather than the maina (see MYNA) with that described by Aelian. [Mr. MCrindle (Invasion of India, 186) favours the identification of the bird with the Maina.]
c. A.D. 250.There is another bird found among the Indians, which is of the size of a starling. It is particoloured; and in imitating the voice of man it is more loquacious and clever than a parrot. But it does not readily bear confinement, and yearning for liberty, and longing for intercourse with its kind, it prefers hunger to bondage with fat living. The Macedonians who dwell among the Indians, in the city of Bucephala and thereabouts call the bird [Greek Text] keraiwn (Taily); and the name arose from the fact that the bird twitches his tail just like a wagtail.Aelian, de Nat. Anim. xvi. 3.
SHAMAN, SHAMANISM, s. These terms are applied in modern times to superstitions of the kind that
connects itself with exorcism and devil-dancing as their most prominent characteristic, and which are
found to prevail with wonderful identity of circumstance among non-Caucasian races over parts of the
earth most remote from one another; not only among the vast variety of Indo-Chinese tribes, but among
the Dravidian tribes of India, the Veddahs of Ceylon, the races of Siberia, and the red nations of N. and
S. America. Hinduism has assimilated these prior superstitions of the sons of Tur, as Mr. Hodgson
calls them, in the form of Tantrika mysteries, whilst, in the wild performance of the Dancing Dervishes at
Constantinople, we see, perhaps, again, the infection of Turanian blood breaking out from the very heart
of Mussulman orthodoxy (see Notes to Marco Polo, Bk. II. ch. 50). The characteristics of Shamanism
is the existence of certain sooth-sayers or medicine-men, who profess a special art of dealing with the
mischievous spirits who are supposed to produce illness and other calamities, and who invoke these
spirits and ascertain the means of appeasing them, in trance produced by fantastic ceremonies and
c. B.C. 320. [Greek Text] TouV de SarmanaV, touV men entimotatouV TlobiouV fhsin onomazesqai, zwntaV en taiV ulaiV apo fullwn kai karpwn agriwn, esqhtaV d ecein apo floiwn dendreiwn, afrodisiwn cwriV kai oinou.From Megasthenes, in Strabo, xv.
[c. 1766. this order to be enforced in the accounts by the shanbague.Logan, Malabar, iii. 120.
Copyright: All texts on Bibliomania are © Bibliomania.com Ltd,
and may not be reproduced in any form without our written permission.
See our FAQ for more details.