SERAPHIN. See XERAFIN. SERENDIB, n.p. The Arabic form of the name of Ceylon in the earlier Middle Ages. (See under CEYLON.)

SERINGAPATAM, n.p. The city which was the capital of the Kingdom of Mysore during the reigns of Hyder Ali and his son Tippoo. Written Sri-ranga-pattana, meaning according to vulgar interpretation ‘Vishnu’s Town.’ But as both this and the other Srirangam (Seringam town and temple, so-called, in the Trichinopoly district) are on islands of the Cauvery, it is possible that ranga stands for Lanka, and that the true meaning is ‘Holy-Isle-Town.’

[SERPEYCH, s. Pers. sarpech, sarpesh; an ornament of gold, silver or jewels, worn in front of the turban; it sometimes consists of gold plates strung together, each plate being set with precious stones. Also a band of silk and embroidery worn round the turban.

[1753.—“… a fillet. This they call a sirpeach, which is wore round the turban; persons of great distinction generally have them set with precious stones.”—Hanway, iv. 191.

[1786.—“Surpaishes.” See under CULGEE.

[1813.—“Serpeych.” See under KILLUT.]

SETT, s. Properly Hind. seth, which according to Wilson is the same word with the Chetti (see CHETTY) or Shetti of the Malabar Coast, the different forms being all from Skt. sreshiha, ‘best, or chief,’ sresthi, ‘the chief of a corporation, a merchant or banker.’ C. P. Brown entirely denies the identity of the S. Indian shetti with the Skt. word (see CHETTY).

1740.—“The Sets being all present at the Board inform us that last year they dissented to the employment of Fillick Chund (&c.), they being of a different caste; and consequently they could not do business with them.”—In Long, p. 9.

1757.—“To the Seats Mootabray and Roopchund the Government of Chandunagore was indebted a million and a half Rupees.”—Orme, ii. 138 of reprint (Bk. viii.).

1770.—“As soon as an European arrived the Gentoos, who know mankind better than is commonly supposed, study his character … and lend or procure him money upon bottomry, or at interest. This interest, which is usually 9 per cent. at this is higher when he is under a necessity of borrowing of the Cheyks.

“These Cheyks are a powerful family of Indians, who have, time immemorial, inhabited the banks of the Ganges. Their riches have long ago procured them the management of the bank belonging to the Court. …”—Raynal, tr. 1777, i. 427. Note that by Cheyks the Abbé means Setts.

[1883.—“… from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin a security endorsed by the Mathura Seth is as readily convertible into cash as a Bank of England Note in London or Paris.”—F. S. Growse, Mathura, 14.]

SETTLEMENT, s. In the Land Revenue system of India, an estate or district is said to be settled, when instead of taking a quota of the year’s produce the Government has agreed with the cultivators, individually or in community, for a fixed sum to be paid at several periods of the year, and not liable to enhancement during the term of years for which the agreement or settlement is made. The operation of arranging the terms of such an agreement, often involving tedious and complicated considerations and enquiries, is known as the process of settlement. A Permanent Settlement is that in which the annual payment is fixed in perpetuity. This was introduced in Bengal by Lord Cornwallis in 1793, and does not exist except within that great Province, [and a few districts in the Benares division of the N.W.P., and in Madras.]

[SEVEN PAGODAS, n.p. The Tam. Mavallipuram, Skt. Mahabalipura, ‘the City of the Great Bali,’ a place midway between Sadras and Covelong. But in one of the inscriptions (about 620 A.D.) a King, whose name is said to have been Amara, is described as having conquered the chief of the Mahamalla race. Malla was probably the name of a powerful highland chieftain subdued by the Chalukyans. (See Crole, Man. of Chingleput, 92 seq.). Dr. Oppert (Orig. Inhabit., 98) takes the name to be derived from the Malla or Palli race.

SEVEN SISTERS, or BROTHERS. The popular name (Hind. sat-bhai) of a certain kind of bird, about the size of a thrush, common throughout most parts of India, Malacocercus terricolor, Hodgson, ‘Bengal babbler’ of Jerdon. The latter author gives the native name as Seven Brothers, which is the form also given in the quotation below from Tribes on My Frontier. The bird is so named from being constantly

  By PanEris using Melati.

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