was the zero of longitude among the Hindus. The Arab writers borrowing from the Hindus wrote the
name apparently Azin, but this by the mere omission of a diacritical point became Arin, and from the
Arabs passed to medieval Christian geographers as the name of an imaginary point on the equator, the
intersection of the central meridian with that circle. Further, this point, or transposed city, had probably
been represented on maps, as we often see cities on medieval maps, by a cupola or the like. And hence
the Cupola of Arin or Arym, or the Cupola of the Earth (Al-kubba alardh) became an established
common-place for centuries in geographical tables or statements. The idea was that just 180° of the
earths circumference was habitable, or at any rate cognizable as such, and this meridian of Arin bisected
this habitable hemisphere. But as the western limit extended to the Fortunate Isles, it became manifest
to the Arabs that the central meridian could not be so far east as the Hindu meridian of Arin (or of Lanka,
i.e. Ceylon). (See quotation from the Aryabhatta, under JAVA.) They therefore shifted it westward,
but shifted the mystic Arin along the equator westward also. We find also among medieval European
students (as with Roger Bacon, below), a confusion between Arin and Syene. This Reinaud supposes
to have arisen from the [Greek Text] Essina imporion of Ptolemy, a place which he locates on the Zanzibar
coast, and approximating to the shifted position of Arin. But it is perhaps more likely that the confusion
arose from some survival of the real name Azin. Many conjectures were vainly made as to the origin of
Arym, and M. Sedillot was very positive that nothing more could be learned of it than he had been able
to learn. But the late M. Reinaud completely solved the mystery by pointing out that Arin was simply a
corruption of Ujjain. Even in Arabic the mistake had been thoroughly ingrained, insomuch that the word
Arin had been adopted as a generic name for a place of medium temperature or qualities (see Jorjani,
c. A.D. 150. [Greek Text] Ozhnh basileion Tiastanou.Ptol, VII. i. 63.
Equator passes between east and west through an island situated between Hind and Habash (Abyssinia),
and a little south of these two countries. This point, half way between north and south is cut by the
point (meridian ?) half way between the Eternal Islands and the extremity of China ; it is what is called
The Cupola of the Earth.Masudi, i. 180181.
c. 1020.Les Astronomes
ont fait correspondre la ville
dOdjein avec le lieu qui dans le tableau des villes inséré dans les tables astronomiques a reçu le
nom dArin, et qui est supposé situé sur les bords de la mer. Mais entre Odjein et la mer, il y a prè de
cent yodjanas.Al-Biruni, quoted by Reinaud, Intro. to Abulfeda, p. ccxlv.
c. 1267.Meridianum vero
latus Indiae descendit a tropico Capricorni, et secat aequinoctialem circulum apud Montem Maleum
et regiones ei conterminos et transit per Syenem, quae nune Arym vocatur. Nam in libro cursuum
planetarum dicitur quod duplex est Syene ; una sub solstitio
alia sub aequinoctiali circulo, de quâ nunc
est sermo, distans per xc gradus ab occidente, sed magis ab oriente elongatur propter hoc, quod longitudo
habitabilis major est quam medietas coeli vel terrae, et hoc versus orientem.Roger Bacon, Opus Majus,
ed. London, 1633, p. 195.
c. 1300.Sous la ligne équinoxiale, au milieu du monde, là où il ny a pas de
latitude, se trouve le point de la corrélation servant de centre aux parties que se coupent entre elles.
cet endroit et sur ce point se trouve le lieu nommé Coupole de Azin ou Coupole de Arin. Là est un
château grand, élevé et dun accès difficile. Suivant Ibn-Alaraby, cest le séjour des démons et la trône dEblis.
Indiens parlent également de ce lieu, et débitent des fables à son sujet.Arabic Cosmography, quoted by
Reinaud, p. ccxliii.
c. 1400.Arin (al-arin. Le lieu dune proportion moyenne dans les choses
sur la terre à une hauteur égale des deux poles, en sorte que la nuit ny empiète point sur la durée du jour,
ni le jour sur la durée de la nuit. Ce mot a passé dans lusage ordinaire, pour signifier dune manière générale
un lieu dune temperature moyenne.Livre de Definitions du Seïd Scherif Zeineddin
fils de Mohammed
Djordjani, trad. de Silv. de Sacy, Not. et Extr. x. 39.
1498.Ptolemy and the other philosophers, who
have written upon the globe, thought that it was spherical, believing that this hemisphere was round
as well as that in which they themselves dwelt, the centre of which was in the island of Arin, which is
under the equinoctial line, between the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Persia.Letter of Columbus, on
his Third Voyage, to the King and Queen. Majors Transl., Hak. Soc. 2nd ed. 135.
thence we went to Vgini and Serringe.
R. Fitch, in Hakl. ii. 385.
[1616.Vgen, the Cheefe Citty of
Malwa.Sir T. Roe, Hak. Soc. ii. 379.]
c. 1659.Dara having understood what had passed at Eugenes,
fell into that choler against Kasem Kan, that it was thought he would have cut off his head.Bernier,
E.T. p. 13 ; [ed. Constable, 41].
1785.The City of Ugen is very ancient, and said to have been the
Residence of the Prince BICKER MAJIT, whose Æra is now Current among the Hindus.Sir C. Malet, in
Dalrymple, Or. Rep. i. 268.