divides Aracan and Cassé from the Burmese.…”—Sangermano, p. 33.

1827.—“The extensive area of the Burman territory is inhabited by many distinct nations or tribes, of whom I have heard not less than eighteen enumerated. The most considerable of these are the proper Burmans, the Peguans or Talains, the Shans or people of Lao, the Cassay, or more correctly Kathé.…”—Crawfurd’s Journal, 372.

1855.—“The weaving of these silks…gives employment to a large body of the population in the suburbs and villages round the capital, especially to the Munnipoorians, or Kathé, as they are called by the Burmese.

“These people, the descendants of unfortunates who were carried off in droves from their country by the Burmans in the time of King Mentaragyi and his predecessors, form a very great proportion…of the metropolitan population, and they are largely diffused in nearly all the districts of Central Burma.…Whatever work is in hand for the King or for any of the chief men near the capital, these people supply the labouring hands ; if boats have to be manned they furnish the rowers ; and whilst engaged on such tasks any remuneration they may receive is very scanty and uncertain.”—Yule, Mission to Ava, 153–154.

MUNSUBDAR. Hind. from Pers. mansabdar, ‘the holder of office or dignity’ (Ar. mansab). The term was used to indicate quasi-feudal dependents of the Mogul Government who had territory assigned to them, on condition of their supplying a certain number of horse, 500, 1000 or more. In many cases the title was but nominal, and often it was assumed without warrant. [Mr. Irvine discusses the question at length and represents mansab by “the word ‘rank,’ as its object was to settle precedence and fix gradation of pay ; it did not necessarily imply the exercise of any particular office, and meant nothing beyond the fact that the holder was in the employ of the State, and bound in return to yield certain services when called upon.” (J.R.A.S., July 1896, pp. 510 seqq.)]

[1617.—“…slew one of them and twelve Maancipdares.”—Sir T. Roe, Hak. Soc. ii. 417 ; in ii. 461, “Mancipdaries.”

[1623.—“…certain Officers of the Militia, whom they call Mansubdàr.”—P. della Valle, Hak. Soc. i. 97.]

c. 1665.—“Mansebdars are Cavaliers of Manseb, which is particular and honourable Pay ; not so great indeed as that of the Omrahs…they being esteemed as little Omrahs, and of the rank of those, that are advanced to that dignity.”—Bernier, E.T. p. 67 ; [ed. Constable, 215].

1673.—“Munsubdars or petty omrahs.”—Fryer, 195.

1758.—“…a munsubdar or commander of 6000 horse.”—Orme, ed. 1803, ii. 278.

MUNTRA, s. Skt. mantra, ‘a text of the Vedas ; a magical formula.’

1612.—“…Trata da causa primeira, segundo os livros que tem, chamados Terum Mandra mole” (mantra- mula, mula ‘text’).—Couto, Dec. V. liv. vi. cap. 3.

1776.—“Mantur—a text of the Shaster.”—Halhed, Code, p. 17.

1817.—“…he is said to have found the great mantra, spell or talisman.”—Mill, Hist. ii. 149.

MUNTREE, s. Skt. Mantri. A minister or high official. The word is especially affected in old Hindu States, and in the Indo-Chinese and Malay States which derive their ancient civilisation from India. It is the word which the Portuguese made into mandarin (q.v.).

1810.—“When the Court was full, and Ibrahim, the son of Candu the merchant, was near the throne, the Raja entered.…But as soon as the Rajah seated himself, the muntries and high officers of state arrayed themselves according to their rank.”—In a Malay’s account of Government House at Calcutta, transl. by Dr. Leyden, in Maria Graham, p. 200.

[1811.—“Mantri.” See under ORANKAY.

[1829.—“The Mantris of Mewar prefer estates to pecuniary stipend, which gives more consequence in every point of view.”—Tod, Annals, Calcutta reprint, i. 150.]

  By PanEris using Melati.

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