KOOT, s. Hind. kut, from Skt. kushta, the costum and costus of the Roman writers. (See under PUTCHOCK.)

b.c. 16.—

Costum molle date, et blandi mihi thuris honores.”—Propertius, IV. vi. 5.

c. 70–80.—“Odorum causâ unguentorumque et deliciarum, si placet, etiam superstitionis gratiâ emantur, quoniam tunc supplicamus et costo.”—Pliny, Hist. Nat. xxii. 56.

c. 80–90.—(From the Sinthus or Indus) [Greek Text] “antifortizetai de kostoV, bdella, lukion, nardoV. …”—Periplus.

1563.—“R. And does not the Indian costus grow in Guzarate?

O. It grows in territory often subject to Guzarat, i.e. lying between Bengal and Dely and Cambay, I mean the lands of Mamdou and Chitor. …”—Garcia, f. 72.

1584.—“Costo dulce from Zindi and Cambaia.”—Barret, in Hakl. ii. 413.

KOOZA, s. A goglet, or pitcher of porous clay; corr. of Pers. kuza. Commonly used at Bombay.

[1611.—“One sack of cusher to make coho.”—Danvers, Letters, i. 128.]

1690.—“Therefore they carry about with them Kousers or Jarrs of Water, when they go abroad, to quench their thirst. …”—Ovington, 295.

[1871.—“Many parts of India are celebrated for their Coojahs or guglets, but the finest are brought from Bussorah, being light, thin, and porous, made from a whitish clay.”—Riddell, Ind. Domest. Econ., 362.]

KOSHOON, s. This is a term which was affected by Tippoo Sahib in his military organisation, for a brigade, or a regiment in the larger Continental use of that word. His Piadah ’askar, or Regular Infantry, was formed into 5 Kachahris (see CUTCHERRY), composed in all of 27 Kushuns. A MS. note on the copy of Kirkpatrick’s Letters in the India Office Library says that Kushoon was properly Skt. kshuni or kshauni, ‘a grand division of the force of an Empire, as used in the Mahabharata. But the word adopted by Tippoo appears to be Turki. Thus we read in Quatremère’s transl. from Abdurrazzak: “He (Shah Rukh) distributed to the emirs who commanded the tomans (corps of 10,000), the koshun (corps of 1000), the sadeh (of 100), the deheh (of 10), and even to the private soldiers, presents and rewards” (Nots. et Exts. xiv. 91; see also p. 89). Again: “The soldiers of Isfahan having heard of the amnesty accorded them, arrived, koshun by koshun.” (Ibid. 130.) Vambéry gives koshun as Or. Turki for an army, a troop (literally whatever is composed of several parts).

[1753.—“… Kara-kushun, are also foot soldiers … the name is Turkish and signifies black guard.”—Hanway, I. pt. ii. 252.]

c. 1782.—“In the time of the deceased Nawab, the exercises … of the regular troops were … performed, and the word given according to the French system … but now, the Sultan (Tippoo) … changed the military code … and altered the technical terms or words of command … to words of the Persian and Turkish languages. … From the regular infantry 5000 men being selected, they were named Kushoon, and the officer commanding that body was called a Sipahdar. … —Hist. of Tipu Sultan, p. 31.

[1810.—“… with a division of five regular cushoons. …”—Wilks, Mysore, reprint 1869, ii. 218.]

KOTOW, KOWTOW, s. From the Chinese k’o-t’ou, lit. ‘knock-head’; the salutati on used in China before the Emperor, his representatives, or his symbols, made by prostrations repeated a fixed number of times, the forehead touching the ground at each prostration. It is also used as the most respectful form of salutation from children to parents, and from servants to masters on formal occasions, &c. This mode of homage belongs to old Pan-Asiatic practice. It was not, however, according to M. Pauthier, of indigenous antiquity at the Court of China, for it is not found in the ancient Book of Rites of the Cheu Dynasty, and he supposes it to have been introduced by the great destroyer and reorganiser, Tsin shi Hwangti, the Builder of the Wall. It had certainly become established by the 8th century of our era, for it is mentioned that the Ambassadors who came to Court from the famous Harun-al-Rashid (a.d. 798) had to perform it. Its nature is mentioned by Marco Polo, and by the ambassadors of Shah Rukh (see below). It was also the established ceremonial in the presence of the Mongol Khans, and is described by Baber under the name of kornish. It was probably introduced into Pe rsia in the time of the Mongol Princes of the house of Hulaku, and it continued to be in use in the time of Shah ‘Abbas. The custom indeed in Persia may possibly have come down from time immemorial, for, as the classical quotations show, it was of very ancient prevalence in that country. But the interruptions to Persian monarchy are perhaps against this.

  By PanEris using Melati.

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