GOA, n.p. Properly Gowa, Gova, Mahr. Goven, [which the Madras Gloss. connects with Skt. go, ‘a cow,’ in the sense of the ‘cowherd country’]. The famous capital of the Portuguese dominions in India since its capture by Albuquerque in 1510. In earlier history and geography the place appears under the name of Sindabur or Sandabur (Sundapur?) (q.v.). Gova or Kuva was an ancient name of the southern Konkan (see in H. H. Wilson’s Works, Vishnu Purana, ii. 164, note 20). We find the place called by the Turkish admiral Sidi ’Ali Gowai-Sandabur, which may mean “Sandabur of Gova.”

1391.—In a copper grant of this date (S. 1313) we have mention of a chief city of Kankan (see CONCAN) called Gowa and Gowapura. See the grant as published by Major Legrand Jacob in J. Bo. Br. R. As. Soc. iv. 107. The translation is too loose to make it worth while to transcribe a quotation; but it is interesting as mentioning the reconquest of Goa from the Turushkas, i.e. Turks or foreign Mahommedans. We know from Ibn Batuta that Mahommedan settlers at Hunawar had taken the place about 1344.

1510 (but referring to some years earlier). “I departed from the city of Dabuli aforesaid, and went to another island which is about a mile distant from the mainland and is called Goga…In this island there is a fortress near the sea, walled round after our manner, in which there is sometimes a captain who is called Savaiu, who has 400 mamelukes, he himself being also a mameluke.”—Varthema, 115-116.

c. 1520.—“In the Island of Tissoury, in which is situated the city of Goa, there are 31 aldeas, and these are as follows.…”—In Archiv. Port. Orient., fasc. 5.

c. 1554.—“At these words (addressed by the Vizir of Guzerat to a Portuguese Envoy) my wrath broke out, and I said: ‘Malediction! You have found me with my fleet gone to wreck, but please God in his mercy, before long, under favour of the Padshah, you shall be driven not only from Hormuz, but from Diu and Gowa too!’”—Sidi’ Ali Kapudan, in J. Asiat. Ser. I. tom. ix. 70.

1602.—“The island of Goa is so old a place that one finds nothing in the writings of the Canaras (to whom it always belonged) about the beginning of its population. But we find that it was always so frequented by strangers that they used to have a proverbial saying: ‘Let us go and take our ease among the cool shades of Goe moat,’ which in the old language of the country means ‘the cool fertile land.’”—Couto, IV. x. cap. 4.

1648.—“All those that have seen Europe and Asia agree with me that the Port of Goa, the Port of Constantinople, and the Port of Toulon, are three of the fairest Ports of all our vast continent.”—Tavernier, E.T. ii. 74; [ed. Ball, i. 186].

GOA PLUM. The fruit of Parinarium excelsum, introduced at Goa from Mozambique, called by the Portuguese Matomba. “The fruit is almost pure brown sugar in a paste” (Birdwood, MS.).

GOA POTATO. Dioscorea aculeata Birdwood, MS.).

GOA POWDER. This medicine, which in India is procured from Goa only, is invaluable in the virulent eczema of Bombay, and other skin diseases. In eczema it sometimes acts like magic, but smarts like the cutting of a knife. It is obtained from Andira Araroba (N.O. Leguminosae), a native (we believe) of S. America. The active principle is Chrysophanic acid (Commn. from Sir G. Birdwood).

GOA STONE. A factitious article which was in great repute for medical virtues in the 17th century. See quotation below from Mr. King. Sir G. Birdwood tells us it is still sold in the Bombay Bazar.

1673.—“The Paulistines enjoy the biggest of all the Monasteries at St. Roch; in it is a Library, an Hospital, and an Apothecary’s Shop well furnished with Medicines, where Gasper Antonio, a Florentine, a Lay- Brother of the Order, the Author of the Goa-Stones, brings them in 50,000 Xerephins, by that invention Annually; he is an Old Man, and almost Blind.”—Fryer, 149-150.

1690.—“The double excellence of this Stone (snake-stone) recommends its worth very highly…and much excels the deservedly famed Gaspar Antoni, or Goa Stone.”—Ovington, 262.

1711.—“Goa Stones or Pedra de Gasper Antonio, are made by the Jesuits here: They are from ¼ to 8 Ounces each; but the Sise makes no Difference in the Price: We bought 11 Ounces for 20 Rupees. They are often counterfeited, but ’tis an easie Matter for one who has seen the right Sort, to discover cover it.…Manooch’s Stones at Fort St. George come the nearest to them…both Sorts are deservedly cried up for their Vertues.”—Lockyer, 268.

1768-71.—“Their medicines are mostly such as are produced in the country. Amongst others, they make use of a kind of little artificial stone, that is manufactured at Goa, and possesses a strong aromatic scent. They give scrapings of

  By PanEris using Melati.

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