DATURA to DAYE
DATURA, YELLOW, and YELLOW THISTLE. These are Bombay names for the Argemone mexicana,
fico del inferno of Spaniards, introduced accidentally from America, and now an abundant and pestilent
weed all over India.
DAWK, s. H. and Mahr. dak, Post, i.e. properly transport by relays of men and horses, and thence
the mail or letter-post, as well as any arrangemen for travelling, or for transmitting articles by such relays.
The institution was no doubt imitated from the barid, or post, established throughout the empire of the
Caliphs by Moawia. The barid is itself connected with the Latin veredus, and veredius.
1310.It was the practice of the Sultan (Alá-uddín) when he sent an army on an expedition to establish
posts on the road, wherever posts could be maintained.
At every half or quarter kos runners were posted
securing of accurate intelligence from the court on one side and the army on the other was a great public
benefit.Zia-uddin Barni, in Elliot, iii. 203.In Seton-Karr, ii. 185.
c. 1340.The foot-post (in India) is thus arranged: every
mile is divided into three equal intervals which are called Dawah, which is as much as to say the third
part of a mile (the mile itself being called in India Koruh). At every third of a mile there is a village
well inhabited, outside of which are three tents where men are seated ready to start.
Ibn Batuta, iii.
c. 1340.So he wrote to the Sultan to announce our arrival, and sent his letter by the dawah,
which is the foot post, as we have told you.
At every mile (i.e. Koruh or coss) from Delhi
to Daulatabad there are three dawah or posts.Ibid. 1912. It seems probable that this dawah is
some misunderstanding of dak.
There are established, between the capital and the chief cities of the
different territories, posts placed at certain distances from each other, which are like the post-relays in
Egypt and Syria
but the distance between them is not more than four bowshots or even less. At each
of these posts ten swift runners are stationed
as soon as one of these men receives a letter he runs
off as rapidly as possible.
At each of these post stations there are mosques, where prayers are said,
and where the traveller can find shelter, reservoirs full of good water, and markets
so that there is very
little necessity for carrying water, or food, or tents.Shahabuddin Dimishki, in Elliot, iii. 581.
that every ten kos he should erect a yam, or post-house, which they call a dâk-choki, for six horses.
c. 1612.He (Akbar) established posts throughout his dominions, having two horses and
a set of footmen stationed at every five coss. The Indians call this establishment Dak chowky. Firishta,
by Briggs, ii. 2801.
1657.But when the intelligence of his (Dara-Shekohs) officious meddling
had spread abroad through the provinces by the dák chauki.
Khafi Khan, in Elliot, vii. 214.
Post in the Moguls Dominions goes very swift, for at every Caravanseray, which are built on the
High-roads, about ten miles distant from one another, Men, very swift of Foot, are kept ready.
Curriers are called Dog Chouckies.A. Hamilton, i. 149; [ed. 1744, i. 150].
1771.I wrote to the
Governor for permission to visit Calcutta by the Dawks.
Letter in the Intrigues of a Nabob, &c., 76.
mean the absurd, unfair, irregular and dangerous Mode, of suffering People to paw over their Neighbours
Letters at the Dock.
Letter in Hickys Bengal Gazette, Mar. 24.
1796.The Honble. the Governor-
General in Council has been pleased to order the re-establishment of Dawk Bearers upon the new
road from Calcutta to Benares and Patna.
The following are the rates fixed.
From Calcutta to Benares.
Sicca Rupees 500.
1809.He advised me to proceed immediately by Dawk.
Ld. Valentia, i. 62.
1824.The dak or
post carrier having passed me on the preceding day, I dropped a letter into his leathern bag, requesting
a friend to send his horse on for me.Seely, Wonders of Ellora, ch. iv. A letter so sent by the post-
runner, in the absence of any receiving office, was said to go by outside dawk.
1843.JAM: You have
received the money of the British for taking charge of the dawk; you have betrayed your trust, and stopped
If you come in and make your salám, and promise fidelity to the British Government, I will
restore to you your lands
and the superintendence of the dawks. If you refuse I will wait till the hot
weather has gone past, and then I will carry fire and sword into your territory
and if I catch you, I will
hang you as a rebel.Sir C. Napier to the Jam of the Jokees (in Life of Dr. J. Wilson, p. 440).
the true reason being, Mr, Barton declared, that he was too stingy to pay her dawk.The True Reformer,
DAWK, s. Name of a tree. See DHAWK.