CHOWRYBURDAR to CHUCKLAH
CHOWRYBURDAR, s. The servant who carries the Chowry. H. P. chaunri-bardar.
1774.The Deb-Rajah on horseback
a chowra-burdar on each side of him.Bogle, in Markhams
the old king was sitting in the garden with a chowrybadar waving the flies from him.Miss
Eden, Up the Country, i. 138.]
CHOWT, CHOUT, s. Mahr. chauth, one fourth part. The blackmail levied by the Mahrattas from the
provincial governors as compensation for leaving their districts in immunity from plunder. The term is
also applied to some other exactions of like ratio (see Wilson).
[1559.Mr. Whiteway refers to Couto (Dec. VII. bk. 6, ch. 6), where this word is used in reference to
payments made in 1559 in the time of D. Constantine de Bragança, and in papers of the early
part of the 17th century the King of the Chouteas is frequently mentioned.]
1644.This King holds in
our lands of Daman a certain payment which they call Chouto, which was paid him long before they
belonged to the Portuguese, and so after they came under our power the payment continued to be made,
and about these exactions and payments there have risen great disputes and contentions on one side
and another.Bocarro (MS.).
1674.Messengers were sent to Bassein demanding the chout of all
the Portuguese territory in these parts. The chout means the fourth part of the revenue, and this is the
earliest mention we find of the claim.Ormes Fragments, p. 45.
1763-78.They (the English) were
a little surprised to find in the letters now received from Balajerow and his agent to themselves, and
in stronger terms to the Nabob, a peremptory demand of the Chout or tribute due to the King of the
Morattoes from the Nabobship of Arcot.Orme, ii. 228-9.
cannot have a right to
two choutes, any more than to two revenues from any village in the same year.Wellington Desp.
(ed. 1837), ii. 175.
They (the Mahrattas) were accustomed to demand of the provinces they
threatened with devastation a certain portion of the public revenue, generally the fourth part; and this,
under the name of the chout, became the recognized Mahratta tribute, the price of the absence of their
plundering hordes.Whitney, Oriental and Ling. Studies, ii. 20-21.
CHOYA, CHAYA, CHEY, s. A root, [generally known as chayroot,] (Hedyotis umbellata, Lam., Oldenlandia
umb., L.) of the Nat Ord. Cinchonaceae, affording a red dye, sometimes called India Madder, [Dye
Root, Rameshwaram Root]; from Tam. shayaver, Malayal. chayaver (chaya, colour, ver, root). It
is exported from S. India, and was so also at one time from Ceylon. There is a figure of the plant in
Letters Edif. xiv. 164.
c. 1566.Also from S. Tome they layd great store of red yarne, of bombast died with a roote which
they call saia, as aforesayd, which colour will never out.Caesar Frederike, in Hakl. [ii. 354].
vien anchora di detta saia da un altro luogo detto Petopoli, e se ne tingono parimente in S. Thomè.Balbi,
1672.Here groweth very good Zaye.Baldaeus, Ceylon.
if they would provide
mustors of Chae and White goods.
Memoriall of S. Master, in Kistna Man., p. 131.]
dye-root that is used on the Coast for painting chintzes).Valentijn, Chor. 45.
1727.The Islands of
Diu (near Masulipatam) produce the famous Dye called Shaii. It is a Shrub growing in Grounds that
are overflown with the Spring tides.A. Hamilton, i. 370; [ed. 1744, i. 374].
1860.The other productions
that constituted the exports of the Island were sapan-wood to Persia; and choya-roots, a substitute for
Madder, collected at Manaar
for transmission to Surat.Tennents Ceylon, ii. 54-55. See also Chittys
Ceylon Gazetteer (1834), p. 40.
CHUCKAROO, s. English soldiers lingo for Chokra (q.v.)
CHUCKER. From H. chakar, chakkar, chakra, Skt. chakra, a wheel or circle.
(a.) s. A quoit for playing
the English game; but more properly the sharp quoit or discus which constituted an ancient Hindu missile
weapon, and is, or was till recently, carried by the Sikh fanatics called Akali (see AKALEE), generally
encircling their peaked turbans. The thing is described by Tavernier (E. T. ii. 41: [ed. Ball, i. 82]) as