CASIS to CASTE
CASIS, CAXIS, CACIZ, &c., s. This Spanish and Portuguese word, though Dozy gives it only as prêtre
chrétien, is frequently employed by old travellers, and writers on Eastern subjects, to denote Mahommedan
divines (mullas and the like). It may be suspected to have arisen from a confusion of two Arabic terms
Kadi (see CAZEE) and kashish or kasis, a Christian Presbyter (from a Syriac root signifying senuit).
Indeed we sometimes find the precise word kashish (Caxix) used by Christian writers as if it were the
special title of a Mahommedan theologian, instead of being, as it really is, the special and technical
title of a Christian priest (a fact which gives Mount Athos its common Turkish name of Kashish Dagh).
In the first of the following quotations the word appears to be applied by the Mussulman historian to
pagan priests, and the word for churches to pagan temples. In the others, except that from Major Millingen,
it is applied by Christian writers to Mahommedan divines, which is indeed its recognised signification in
Spanish and Portuguese. In Jarrics Thesaurus (Jesuit Missions, 1606) the word Cacizius is constantly
used in this sense.
c. 1310.There are 700 churches (kalisia) resembling fortresses, and every one of them overflowing
with presbyters (kashishan) without faith, and monks without religion. Description of the Chinese
City of Khanzai (Hangchau) in Wasafs History (see also Marco Polo, ii. 196).
1404.The town was
inhabited by Moorish hermits called Caxixes ; and many people came to them on pilgrimage, and they
healed many diseases.Markhams Clavijo, 79.
1514.And so, from one to another, the message
passed through four or five hands, till it came to a Gazizi, whom we should call a bishop or prelate,
who stood at the Kings feet.
Letter of Giov. de Empoli, in Archiv. Stor. Ital. Append. p. 56.
as the Cryer was offering to deliver me unto whomsoever would buy me, in comes that very Cacis
Moulana, whom they held for a Saint, with 10 or 11 other Cacis his Inferiors, all Priests like himself of
their wicked sect.F. M. Pinto (tr. by H. C.), p. 8.
1552.Caciz in the same sense used by Barros, II.
[1553.See quotation from Barros under LAR.
[1554.Who was a Caciz of the Moors, which
means in Portuguese an ecclesiastic. Castaneda, Bk. I. ch. 7.]
1561.The King sent off the Moor,
and with him his Casis, an old man of much authority, who was the principal priest of his Mosque.Correa,
by Ld. Stanley, 113.
The Holy Synod declares it necessary to remove from the territories
of His Highness all the infidels whose office it is to maintain their false religion, such as are the cacizes
of the Moors, and the preachers of the Gentoos, jogues, sorcerers, (feiticeiros), jousis, grous (i.e. joshis
or astrologers, and gurus), and whatsoever others make a business of religion among the infidels, and
so also the bramans and paibus (? prabhus, see PURVOE).Decree 6 of the Sacred Council of
Goa, in Arch. Port. Or. fasc. 4.
e foi sepultado no campo per Cacises.Primor e Honra, &c.,
1582.And for pledge of the same, he would give him his sonne, and one of his chief chaplaines,
the which they call Cacis. Castañeda, by N. L.
1603.And now those initiated priests of theirs called
Cashishes (Casciscis) were endeavouring to lay violent hands upon his property.Benedict Goës, in
Cathay, &c., ii. 568.
1648.Here is to be seen an admirably wrought tomb in which a certain Casis
lies buried, who was the Pedagogue or Tutor of a King of Guzuratte. Van Twist, 15.
call the common priests Casis, or by another name Schierifi (see SHEREEF), who like their bishops
are in no way distinguished in dress from simple laymen, except by a bigger turban
and a longer mantle.
Vincenzo Maria, 55.
1688.While they were thus disputing, a Caciz, or doctor of the law, joined
company with them.Dryden, L. of Xavier, Works, ed. 1821, xvi. 68.
1870.A hierarchical body of
priests, known to the people (Nestorians) under the names of Kieshishes and Abunas, is at the head
of the tribes and villages, entrusted with both spiritual and temporal powers. Millingen, Wild Life
among the Koords, 270.
CASSANAR, CATTANAR, s. A priest of the Syrian Church of Malabar ; Malayal. kattanar, meaning
originally a chief, and formed eventually from the Skt. kartri.
1606.The Christians of St. Thomas call their priests Caçanares. Gouvéa, f. 28b. This
author gives Catatiara and Caçaneira as feminine forms, a Cassanars wife. The former is
Malayal. kattatti, the latter a Port. formation.
1612.A few years ago there arose a dispute between a
Brahman and a certain Cassanar on a matter of jurisdiction. P. Vincenzo Maria, 152.
consecrated as a bishop
a Catenar. Logan, Man. of Malabar, i. 211.]