CARCANA, CARCONNA, s. H. from P. karkhana, ‘a place where business is done’ ; a workshop ; a departmental establishment such as that of the commissariat, or the artillery park, in the field.

1663.—“There are also found many raised Walks and Tents in sundry Places, that are the offices of several Officers. Besides these there are many great Halls that are called Kar-Kanays, or places where Handy-craftsmen do work.”—Bernier, E. T. 83 ; [ed. Constable, 258].

c. 1756.—“In reply, Hydur pleaded his poverty…but he promised that as soon as he should have established his power, and had time to regulate his departments (Karkhanajat), the amount should be paid.” —Hussein Ali Khan, History of Hydur Naik, p. 87.

1800.—“The elephant belongs to the Kar-kana, but you may as well keep him till we meet.”—Wellington, i. 144.

1804.—“If the (bullock) establishment should be formed, it should be in regular Karkanas.”—Ibid. iii. 512.

CARCOON, s. Mahr. karkun, ‘a clerk,’ H.—P. kar-kun, (faciendorum factor) or ‘manager.’

[c. 1590.—“In the same way as the kar-kun sets down the transactions of the assessments, the mukaddam and the patwari shall keep their respective accounts.”—Ain, tr. Jarrett, ii. 45.

[1615.—“Made means to the Corcone or Scrivano to help us to the copia of the King’s licence.”—Foster, Letters, iii. 122.

[1616.—“Addick Raia Pongolo, Corcon of this place.”—Ibid. iv. 167.]

1826.—“My benefactor’s chief carcoon or clerk allowed me to sort out and direct despatches to officers at a distance who belonged to the command of the great Sawant Rao.”—Pandurang Hari, 21 ; [ed. 1873, i. 28.]

CARÉNS, n.p. Burm. Ka-reng, [a word of which the meaning is very uncertain. It is said to mean ‘dirty- feeders,’ or ‘low-caste people,’ and it has been connected with the Kirata tribe (see the question discussed by McMahon, The Karens of the Golden Chersonese, 43 seqq.)]. A name applied to a group of non- Burmese tribes, settled in the forest and hill tracts of Pegu and the adjoining parts of Burma, from Mergui in the south, to beyond Toungoo in the north, and from Arakan to the Salwen, and beyond that river far into Siamese territory. They do not know the name Kareng, nor have they one name for their own race ; distinguishing, among these whom we call Karens, three tribes, Sgaw, Pwo, and Bghai, which differ somewhat in customs and traditions, and especially in language. “The results of the labours among them of the American Baptist Mission have the appearance of being almost miraculous, and it is not going too far to state that the cessation of blood feuds, and the peaceable way in which the various tribes are living …and have lived together since they came under British rule, is far more due to the influence exercised over them by the missionaries than to the measures adopted by the English Government, beneficial as these doubtless have been” (Br. Burma Gazetteer, [ii. 226]). The author of this excellent work should not, however, have admitted the quotation of Dr. Mason’s fanciful notion about the identity of Marco Polo’s Carajan with Karen, which is totally groundless.

1759.—“There is another people in this country called Carianners, whiter than either (Burmans or Peguans), distinguished into Buraghmah and Pegu Carianners ; they live in the woods, in small Societies, of ten or twelve houses ; are not wanting in industry, though it goes no further than to procure them an annual subsistence.”—In Dalrymple, Or. Rep. i. 100.

1799—“From this reverend father (V. Sangermano) I received much useful information. He told me of a singular description of people called Carayners or Carianers, that inhabit different parts of the country, particularly the western provinces of Dalla and Bassein, several societies of whom also dwell in the district adjacent to Rangoon. He represented them as a simple, innocent race, speaking a language distinct from that of the Birmans, and entertaining rude notions of religion.… They are timorous, honest, mild in their manners, and exceedingly hospitable to strangers.”—Symes, 207.

c. 1819.—“We must not omit here the Carian, a good and peaceable people, who live dispersed through the forests of Pegù, in small villages consisting of 4 or 5 houses…they are totally dependent upon the despotic government of the Burmese.” —Sangermano, p. 34.

CARICAL, n.p. Etymology doubtful ; Tam. Karaikkal, [which is either karai, ‘masonry’ or ‘the plant, thorny webera’ : kal, ‘channel’ (Madras Adm. Man. ii. 212, Gloss. s.v.)]. A French settlement within the limits of Tanjore district.

  By PanEris using Melati.

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