and in an imaginary money containing 10 of these, by the Musulmans called chucrams [see CHUCKRUM], and by the English Canteroy Pagodas.…”—Buchanan’s Mysore, i. 129.

CANTON, n.p. The great seaport of Southern China, the chief city of the Province of Kwang-tung, whence we take the name, through the Portuguese, whose older writers call it Cantão. The proper name of the city is Kwang-chau-fu. The Chin. name Kwang-tung (=‘Broad East’) is an ellipsis for “capital of the E. Division of the Province Liang-Kwang (or ‘Two Broad Realms’).”—(Bp. Moule).

1516.—“So as this went on Fernão Peres arrived from Pacem with his cargo (of pepper), and having furnished himself with necessaries set off on his voyage in June 1516…they were 7 sail altogether, and they made their voyage with the aid of good pilots whom they had taken, and went without harming anybody touching at certain ports, most of which were subject to the King of China, who called himself the Son of God and Lord of the World. Fernão Peres arrived at the islands of China, and when he was seen there came an armed squadron of 12 junks, which in the season of navigation always cruized about, guarding the sea, to prevent the numerous pirates from attacking the ships. Fernão Peres knew about this from the pilots, and as it was late, and he could not double a certain island there, he anchored, sending word to his captains to have their guns ready for defence if the Chins desired to fight. Next day he made sail towards the island of Veniaga, which is 18 leagues from the city of Cantão. It is on that island that all the traders buy and sell, without licence from the rulers of the city.…And 3 leagues from that island of Veniaga is another island, where is posted the Admiral or Captain-Major of the Sea, who immediately on the arrival of strangers at the island of Veniaga reports to the rulers of Cantão, who they are, and what goods they bring or wish to buy; that the rulers may send orders what course to take.”—Correa, ii. 524.

c. 1535.—“…queste cose…vanno alla China con li lor giunchi, e a Camton, che è Città grande.…”—Sommario de’ Regni, Ramusio, i. f. 337.

1585.—“The Chinos do vse in their pronunciation to terme their cities with this sylable, Fu, that is as much as to say, citie, as Taybin fu, Canton fu, and their townes with this syllable, Cheu.”—Mendoza, Parke’s old E. T. (1588) Hak. Soc. i. 24.

1727.—“Canton or Quantung (as the Chinese express it) is the next maritime Province.”—A. Hamilton, ii. 217.

CANTONMENT, s. (Pron. Cantoonment, with accent on penult.). This English word has become almost appropriated as Anglo-Indian, being so constantly used in India, and so little used elsewhere. It is applied to military stations in India, built usually on a plan which is originally that of a standing camp or ‘cantonment.’

1783.—“I know not the full meaning of the word cantonment, and a camp this singular place cannot well be termed ; it more resembles a large town, very many miles in circumference. The officers’ bungalos on the banks of the Tappee are large and convenient,” &c.—Forbes, Letter in Or. Mem. describing the “Bengal Cantonments near Surat.” iv. 239.

1825.—“The fact, however, is certain… the cantonments at Lucknow, nay Calcutta itself, are abominably situated. I have heard the same of Madras ; and now the lately-settled cantonment of Nusseerabad appears to be as objectionable as any of them.”—Heber, ed, 1844, ii. 7.

1848.—“Her ladyship, our old acquaintance, is as much at home at Madras as at Brussels—in the cantonment as under the tents.”—Vanity Fair, ii. ch. 8.

CAPASS, s. The cotton plant and cotton-wool. H. kapas, from Skt. karpasa, which seems as if it must be the origin of [Greek Text] karpasoz, though the latter is applied to flax.

1753.—“…They cannot any way conceive the musters of 1738 to be a fit standard for judging by them of the cloth sent us this year, as the copass or country cotton has not been for these two years past under nine or ten rupees.…”—Ft. Wm. Cons., in Long, 40.

[1813.—“Guzerat cows are very fond of the capaussia, or cotton-seed.”—Forbes, Or. Mem. 2nd ed. ii. 35.]

CAPEL, s. Malayal. kappal, ‘a ship.’ This word has been imported into Malay, kapal. and Javanese. [It appears to be still in use on the W. Coast ; see Bombay Gazetteer, xiii. (2) 470.]

1498.—In the vocabulary of the language of Calicut given in the Roteiro de V. de Gama we have—

Naoo; capell.”—p. 118.

1510.—“Some others which are made like ours, that is in the bottom, they call

  By PanEris using Melati.

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