BUDGROOK to BUFFALO
BUDGROOK, s. Port. bazarucco. A coin of low denomination, and of varying value and metal (copper,
tin, lead, and tutenague), formerly current at Goa and elsewhere on the Western Coast, as well
as at some other places on the Indian seas. It was also adopted from the Portuguese in the earliest
English coinage at Bombay. In the earliest Goa coinage, that of Albuquerque (1510), the leal or bazarucco
was equal to 2 reis, of which reis there went 420 to the gold cruzado (Gerson da Cunha). The name
appears to have been a native one in use in Goa at the time of the conquest, but its etymology is uncertain.
In Van Noorts Voyage (1648) the word is derived from bazar, and said to mean market-money (perhaps
bazar-ruka, the last word being used for a copper coin in Canarese). [This view is accepted by
Gray in his notes on Pyrard. (Hak. Soc. ii. 68), and by Burnell (Linschoten, Hak. Soc. ii. 143). The
Madras, Admin. Man. Gloss. (s.v.) gives the Can. form as bajara-rokkha, market-money.] C. P. Brown
(MS. notes) makes the word=badaga-ruka, which he says would in Canarese be base-penny, and he
ingeniously quotes Shakspeares beggarly denier, and Horaces vilem assem. This is adopted in substance
by Mr. E. Thomas, who points out that ruka or rukka is in Mahratti (see Molesworth, s. v.) one-twelfth
of an anna. But the words of Khafi Khan below suggest that the word may be a corruption of the P.
buzurg, big, and according to Wilson, budrukh (s. v.) is used in Mahratti as a dialectic corruption of
buzurg. This derivation may be partially corroborated by the fact that at Mocha there is, or was formerly,
a coin (which had become a money of account only, 80 to the dollar) called kabir, i.e. big (see Ovington,
463, and Milburn, i. 98). If we could attach any value to Pyrards spelling bousuruquesthis would
be in favour of the same etymology; as is also the form besorg given by Mandelslo. [For a full examination
of the value of the budgrook based on the most recent authorities, see Whiteway, Rise of the Port.
Power, p. 68.]
1554.Bazarucos at Maluco (Moluccas) 50=1 tanga, at 60 reis to the tanga, 5 tangas =1 pardao. Os
quaes bazarucos se faz comta de 200 caixas (i.e. to the tanga). A. Nunes, 41.
Barret, in Hakl. See SHROFF.]
1598.They pay two Basarukes, which is as much as a Hollanders
It is molten money of badde Tinne.Linschoten, 52, 69; [Hak. Soc. i. 180, 242].
bas argent, sont Basarucos
et sont fait de mauvais Estain. Houtmann, in Navigation des Hollandois,
c. 1610.Il y en a de plusieurs sortes. La premiere est appellée Bousuruques, dont il en faut
75 pour une Tangue. Il y a dautre Bousuruques vieilles, dont il en faut 105 pour le Tangue.
Il y a
de cette monnoye qui est de fer: et dautre de callin, metal de Chine (see CALAY).Pyrard, ii. 39; see
also 21; [Hak. Soc. ii. 33, 68].
1611.Or a Viceroy coins false money; for so I may call it, as the people
lose by it. For copper is worth 40 xerafims (see XERAFINE) the hundred weight, but they coin the
basaruccos at the rate of 60 and 70. The Moors on the other hand, keeping a keen eye on our affairs,
and seeing what a huge profit there is, coin there on the mainland a great quantity of basarucos, and
gradually smuggle them into Goa, making a pitful of gold.Couto, Dialogo do Soldado Pratico, 138.
have (at Gombroon) a certain Copper Coin which they call Besorg, whereof 6 make a Peys,
and 10 Peys make a Chay (Shahi) which is worth about 5d. English.V. and Tr. of J. A. Mandelslo
into the E. Indies, E. T. 1669, p. 8.
1672.Their coins (at Tanor in Malabar)
of Copper, a Buserook,
20 of which make a Fanam.Fryer, 53. [He also spells the word Basrook. See quotation under REAS.]
Pices and Budgrooks. Letters Patent of Charles II. in Charters of the E. I. Co., p. 111.
Budgerooks (at Muskat) are mixt Mettle, rather like Iron than anything else, have a Cross on
one side, and were coind by the Portuguese. Thirty of them make a silver Mamooda, of about Eight
Pence Value.Lockyer, 211.
c. 1720-30.They (the Portuguese) also use bits of copper which they
call buzurg, and four of these buzurgs pass for a fulús. Khafi Khan, in Elliot, v. 345.
Goa the sceraphim is worth 240 Portugal reas, or about 16d. sterling; 2 reas make a basaraco,
15 basaracos a vintin, 42 vintins a tanga, 4 tangas a paru, 2½ parues a pagoda of gold.Grose,
1838.Only eight or ten loads (of coffee) were imported this year, including two loads of Kopes
(see COPECK), the copper currency of Russia, known in this country by the name of Bughrukcha.
They are converted to the same uses as copper. Report from Kabul, by A. Burnes; in Punjab Trade
Report, App. p. iii.
This may possibly contain some indication of the true form of this obscure word, but
I have derived no light from it myself. The budgrook was apparently current at Muscat down to the
beginning of last century (see Milburn, i. 116).