BOYA, s. A buoy. Sea H. (Roebuck). [Mr. Skeat adds: “The Malay word is also boya or bai-rop, which latter I cannot trace.”]

[BOYANORE, BAONOR, s. A corr. of the Malayal. Vallunavar, ‘Ruler.’

[1887.—“Somewhere about 1694-95 … the Kadattunad Raja, known to the early English as the Boyanore or Baonor of Badagara, was in semi-inde pendent possession of Kaduttanad, that is, of the territory lying between the Mahé and Kotta rivers.” —Logan, Man. of Malabar, i. 345.]

BRAB, s. The Palmyra Tree (see PALMYRA) or Borassus flabelliformis. The Portuguese called this Palmeira brava (‘wild’ palm), whence the English corruption. The term is unknown in Bengal, where the tree is called ‘fan-palm,’ ‘palmyra,’ or by the H. name tal or tar. 1623.—“The book is made after the fashion of this country, i.e. not of paper which is seldom or never used, but of palm leaves, viz. of the leaves of that which the Portuguese call palmum brama (sic), or wild palm.”—P. della Valle, ii. 681; [Hak. Soc. ii. 291].

c. 1666.—“Tous les Malabares écrivent comme nous de gauche à droit sur les feuïlles des Palmeras Bravas.”—Thevenot, v. 268.

1673.—“Another Tree called Brabb, bodied like the Cocoe, but the leaves grow round like a Peacock’s Tail set upright.”—Fryer, 76.

1759.—“Brabb, so called at Bombay: Palmira on the coast; and Tall at Bengal.” —Ives, 458.

c. 1760.—“There are also here and there interspersed a few brab-trees, or rather wild palm-trees (the word brab being derived from Brabo, which in Portuguese signifies wild) … the chief profit from that is the toddy.” —Grose, i. 48.

[1808.—See quotation under BANDAREE.]

1809.—“The Palmyra … here called the brab, furnishes the best leaves for thatching, and the dead ones serve for fuel.” —Maria Graham, 5.

BRAHMIN, BRAHMAN, BRAMIN, s. In some parts of India called Bahman; Skt. Brahmana. This word now means a member of the priestly caste, but the original meaning and use were different. Haug. (Brahma und die Brahmanen, pp. 8–11) traces the word to the root brih, ‘to increase,’ and shows how it has come to have its present signification. The older English form is Brachman, which comes to us through the Greek and Latin authors.

c. B.C. 330.—“… twn În Taxilois sofistwn idÎin duo fhsi, Bracmanas amfotÎrous, tòn mÎn prÎsbutÎron ÎxurhmÎnon, tòn nÎwtÎron komhthn, amfotÎrois dakolouqÎin maqhtas…”—Aristobulus, quoted in Strabo, xv. c. 61.

c. B.C. 300.— “Allhn diairÎsin poiÎitai pÎri twn filosófwn duo gÎnh faskwn, wn tous mÎn Bracmanas kalÎi, tous Garmanas [Sarmanas?]”—From Megasthenes, in Strabo, xv. c. 59.

c. A.D. 150.—“But the evil stars have not forced the Brahmins to do evil and abominable things; nor have the good stars persuaded the rest of the (Indians) to abstain from evil things.”—Bardesanes, in Cureton’s Spicilegium, 18.

c. A.D. 500.— “BracmanÎs; ’IndikònÎqnos sofwtaton ous kai bracmas kalousin.” —Stephanus Byzantinus.

1298.—Marco Polo writes (pl.) Abraiaman or Abraiamin, which seems to represent an incorrect Ar. plural (e.g. Abrahamin) picked up from Arab sailors; the correct Ar. plural is Barahima.

1444.—Poggio taking down the reminiscences of Nicolo Conti writes Brammones.

1555.—“Among these is ther a people called Brachmanes, whiche (as Didimus their Kinge wrote unto Alexandre …) live a pure and simple life, led with no likerous lustes of other mennes vanities.” —W. Watreman, Fardle of Faciouns.


Brahmenes são os seus religiosos,
Nome antiguo, e de grande preeminencia:
Observam os preceitos tão famosos
D’hum, que primeiro poz nomo á sciencia.”

Camões, vii. 40.

1578.—Acosta has Bragmen.

1582.—“Castañeda, tr. by N. L.,” has Bramane.

1630.—“The Bramanes … Origen, cap. 13 & 15, affirmeth to bee descended from Abraham by Cheturah, who seated themselves in India, and that so they were called Abrahmanes.”—Lord, Desc. of the Banian Rel., 71.


“Comes he to upbraid us with his innocence?
Seize him, and take this preaching Brachman hence.”

  By PanEris using Melati.

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