Pennant to Phillips

Pennant, Thomas (1726-1798).—Naturalist and traveller, born in Flintshire, and educated at Oxford, was one of the most distinguished naturalists of the 18th century, and published, among other works on natural history, British Zoology (1768), and History of Quadrupeds (1781). In literature he is, however, best remembered by his Tours in Scotland (1771-75), which did much to make known the beauties of the country to England. He also travelled in Ireland and Wales, and on the Continent, and published accounts of his journeys. Dr. Johnson said of him, “he observes more things than any one else does.”

Pepys, Samuel (1633-1703).—Diarist, son of John Pepys, a London tailor, but of good family and connected with Sir E. Montague, afterwards Earl of Sandwich, was educated at St. Paul’s School and at Cambridge After leaving the University he entered the household of Montagu, who became his life-long patron. He held various Government posts, including that of Surveyor-General of the Victualling Office, in which he displayed great administrative ability and reforming zeal, and in 1672 he became Sec. of the Admiralty. After being imprisoned in the Tower on a charge in connection with the Popish plot, and deprived of his office, he was in 1686 again appointed Sec. of the Admiralty, from which, however, he was dismissed at the Revolution. Thereafter he lived in retirement chiefly at Clapham. Pepys was a man of many interests, combining the characters of the man of business, man of pleasure, and virtuoso, being skilled in music and a collector of books, manuscripts, and pictures, and he was president of the Royal Society for two years. He wrote Memoirs of the Royal Navy (1690), but his great legacy to literature is his unique and inimitable Diary, begun January 1, 1660, and coming down to May 31, 1669, when the failure of his sight prevented its further continuance. As an account by an eye-witness of the manners of the Court and of society it is invaluable, but it is still more interesting as, perhaps, the most singular example extant of unreserved self-revelation—all the foibles, peccadilloes, and more serious offences against decorum of the author being set forth with the most relentless naïveté and minuteness. It was written in a cypher or shorthand, which was translated into long-hand by John Smith in 1825, and edited by Lord Braybrooke, with considerable excisions. Later and fuller edition have followed. Pepys left his books, MSS., and collections to Magdalene College, Cambridge, where they are preserved in a separate library.

Percival, James Gates (1795-1854).—Poet, born at Berlin, Conn., was a precocious child, and a morbid and impractical, though versatile man, with a fatal facility in writing verse on all manner of subjects and in nearly every known metre. His sentimentalism appealed to a wide circle, but his was one of the tapers which were extinguished by Lowell. He had also a reputation as a geologist. His poetic works include Prometheus and The Dream of a Day (1843).

Percy, Thomas (1729-1811).—Antiquary and poet, son of a grocer at Bridgnorth, where he was b., ed. at Oxford, entered the Church, and became in 1778 Dean of Carlisle, and in 1782 Bishop of Dromore. He published various antiquarian works, chiefly with reference to the North of England; but is best remembered for his great service to literature in collecting and edited many ancient ballads, published in 1765 as Reliques of Ancient Poetry, which did much to bring back interest in the ancient native literature, and to usher in the revival of romanticism.

Philips, Ambrose (1675?-1749).—Poet, born in Shropshire and educated at Cambridge, wrote pastorals and dramas, was one of the Addison circle, and started a paper, the Freethinker, in imitation of the Spectator. He also made translations from Pindar and Anacreon, and a series of short complimentary verses, which gained for him the nickname of “Namby Pamby.” His Pastorals, though poor enough, excited the jealousy of Pope, who pursued the unfortunate author with life-long enmity. Philips held various Government appointments in Ireland.

Philips, John (1676-1709).—Poet, son of an archdeacon of Salop, and educated at Oxford His Splendid Shilling, a burlesque in Miltonic blank verse, still lives, and Cyder, his chief work, an imitation of Virgil’s Georgics, has some fine descriptive passages. Philips was also employed by Harley to write verses on Blenheim as a counterblast to Addison’s Campaign. He died at 33 of consumption.

Phillips, Samuel (1814-1854).—Novelist, of Jewish descent, studied for the Church at Göttingen and Cambridge, but his flourished dying, he was obliged to give up his intention and take to business, in

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