3. (Mech.) A block or plate having a perfectly flat surface, used as a standard of flatness; a surface
4. (Joinery) A tool for smoothing boards or other surfaces of wood, for forming moldings, etc. It consists
of a smooth-soled stock, usually of wood, from the under side or face of which projects slightly the steel
cutting edge of a chisel, called the iron, which inclines backward, with an apperture in front for the escape
of shavings; as, the jack plane; the smoothing plane; the molding plane, etc.
Objective plane (Surv.), the horizontal plane upon which the object which is to be delineated, or whose
place is to be determined, is supposed to stand. Perspective plane. See Perspective. Plane
at infinity (Geom.), a plane in which points infinitely distant are conceived as situated. Plane iron,
the cutting chisel of a joiner's plane. Plane of polarization. (Opt.) See Polarization. Plane of
projection. (a) The plane on which the projection is made, corresponding to the perspective plane in
perspective; called also principal plane. (b) (Descriptive Geom.) One of the planes to which points
are referred for the purpose of determining their relative position in space. Plane of refraction or
reflection (Opt.), the plane in which lie both the incident ray and the refracted or reflected ray.
(Plane), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Planed ; p. pr. & vb. n. Planing.] [Cf. F. planer, L. planare, fr.
planus. See Plane, a., Plain, a., and cf. Planish.]
1. To make smooth; to level; to pare off the inequalities of the surface of, as of a board or other piece of
wood, by the use of a plane; as, to plane a plank.
2. To efface or remove.
He planed away the names . . . written on his tables.Chaucer.
3. Figuratively, to make plain or smooth. [R.]
What student came but that you planed her path.Tennyson.
(Plane`-par"al*lel) a. (Optics) Having opposite surfaces exactly plane and parallel, as a
piece of glass.
1. One who, or that which, planes; a planing machine; esp., a machine for planing wood or metals.
2. (Print.) A wooden block used for forcing down the type in a form, and making the surface even.
Planer centers. See under Center.
(Plan"er tree`) [From J. S. Planer, a German botanist.] (Bot.) A small-leaved North American
tree (Planera aquatica) related to the elm, but having a wingless, nutlike fruit.
(Plan"et) n. [OE. planete, F. planète, L. planeta, fr. Gr. and a planet; prop. wandering, fr. to
wander, fr. a wandering.]
1. (Astron.) A celestial body which revolves about the sun in an orbit of a moderate degree of eccentricity.
It is distinguished from a comet by the absence of a coma, and by having a less eccentric orbit. See
The term planet was first used to distinguish those stars which have an apparent motion through the
constellations from the fixed stars, which retain their relative places unchanged. The inferior planets
are Mercury and Venus, which are nearer to the sun than is the earth; the superior planets are Mars,
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