Carbonic acid(Chem.), an acid H2CO3, not existing separately, which, combined with positive or basic atoms or radicals, forms carbonates. In common language the term is very generally applied to a compound of carbon and oxygen, CO2, more correctly called carbon dioxide. It is a colorless, heavy, irrespirable gas, extinguishing flame, and when breathed destroys life. It can be reduced to a liquid and solid form by intense pressure. It is produced in the fermentation of liquors, and by the combustion and decomposition of organic substances, or other substances containing carbon. It is formed in the explosion of fire damp in mines, and is hence called after damp; it is also know as choke damp, and mephitic air. Water will absorb its own volume of it, and more than this under pressure, and in this state becomes the common soda water of the shops, and the carbonated water of natural springs. Combined with lime it constitutes limestone, or common marble and chalk. Plants imbibe it for their nutrition and growth, the carbon being retained and the oxygen given out.Carbonic oxide(Chem.), a colorless gas, CO, of a light odor, called more correctly carbon monoxide. It is almost the only definitely known compound in which carbon seems to be divalent. It is a product of the incomplete combustion of carbon, and is an abundant constituent of water gas. It is fatal to animal life, extinguishes combustion, and burns with a pale blue flame, forming carbon dioxide.

(Car"bon*ide) (kär"bon*id or -id), n. A carbide. [R.]

(Car`bon*if"er*ous) a. [Carbon + -ferous.] Producing or containing carbon or coal.

Carboniferous age(Geol.), the age immediately following the Devonian, or Age of fishes, and characterized by the vegetation which formed the coal beds. This age embraces three periods, the Subcarboniferous, the Carboniferous, and Permian. See Age of acrogens, under Acrogen.Carboniferous formation (Geol.), the series of rocks (including sandstones, shales, limestones, and conglomerates, with beds of coal) which make up the strata of the Carboniferous age or period. See the Diagram under Geology.

(Car`bon*i*za"tion) n. [Cf. F. carbonisation.] The act or process of carbonizing.

(Car"bon*ize) v. t. [imp. & p. p. Carbonized ; p. pr. & vb. n. Carbonizing.] [Cf. F. carboniser.]

1. To convert (an animal or vegetable substance) into a residue of carbon by the action of fire or some corrosive agent; to char.

2. To impregnate or combine with carbon, as in making steel by cementation.

(Car`bon*om"e*ter) n. [Carbon + -meter.] An instrument for detecting and measuring the amount of carbon which is present, or more esp. the amount of carbon dioxide, by its action on limewater or by other means.

(Car"bon*yl) n. [Carbon + -yl.] (Chem.) The radical (CO)'b7'b7, occuring, always combined, in many compounds, as the aldehydes, the ketones, urea, carbonyl chloride, etc.

Though denoted by a formula identical with that of carbon monoxide, it is chemically distinct, as carbon seems to be divalent in carbon monoxide, but tetravalent in carbonyl compounds.

Carbonyl chloride(Chem.), a colorless gas, COCl2, of offensive odor, and easily condensable to liquid. It is formed from chlorine and carbon monoxide, under the influence of light, and hence has been called phosgene gas; — called also carbon oxychloride.

(Car`bo*sty"ril) n. [Carbon + styrene.] A white crystalline substance, C9H6N.OH, of acid properties derived from one of the amido cinnamic acids.

(Car"bone) v. t. [See Carbonado.] To broil. [Obs.] "We had a calf's head carboned". Pepys.

(Car*bon"ic) a. [Cf. F. carbonique. See Carbon.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or obtained from, carbon; as, carbonic oxide.

  By PanEris using Melati.

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